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Chemometric Analysis for the Detection of Biogenic Amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon Wines: A Comparative Study between Organic and Nonorganic Production

Authors

  • L. Yañez,

    1. Yañez and Martínez are with the Center for Research in Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Authors Saavedra and Córdova are with the School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Valparaíso, Waddington 716, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. Author Saavedra is with the Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), CONICYT 17 Regional, R066I1004 (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile. Authors Martínez and Ganga are with the Dept. of Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Direct inquiries to author Yañez (E-mail: lina.yanez@usach.cl).
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  • J. Saavedra,

    1. Yañez and Martínez are with the Center for Research in Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Authors Saavedra and Córdova are with the School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Valparaíso, Waddington 716, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. Author Saavedra is with the Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), CONICYT 17 Regional, R066I1004 (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile. Authors Martínez and Ganga are with the Dept. of Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Direct inquiries to author Yañez (E-mail: lina.yanez@usach.cl).
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  • C. Martínez,

    1. Yañez and Martínez are with the Center for Research in Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Authors Saavedra and Córdova are with the School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Valparaíso, Waddington 716, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. Author Saavedra is with the Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), CONICYT 17 Regional, R066I1004 (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile. Authors Martínez and Ganga are with the Dept. of Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Direct inquiries to author Yañez (E-mail: lina.yanez@usach.cl).
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  • A. Córdova,

    1. Yañez and Martínez are with the Center for Research in Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Authors Saavedra and Córdova are with the School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Valparaíso, Waddington 716, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. Author Saavedra is with the Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), CONICYT 17 Regional, R066I1004 (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile. Authors Martínez and Ganga are with the Dept. of Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Direct inquiries to author Yañez (E-mail: lina.yanez@usach.cl).
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  • M.A. Ganga

    1. Yañez and Martínez are with the Center for Research in Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Authors Saavedra and Córdova are with the School of Food Engineering, Pontificia Univ. Católica de Valparaíso, Waddington 716, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile. Author Saavedra is with the Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), CONICYT 17 Regional, R066I1004 (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile. Authors Martínez and Ganga are with the Dept. of Science and Food Technology, Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Estación Central, Santiago, Chile. Direct inquiries to author Yañez (E-mail: lina.yanez@usach.cl).
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Abstract

Abstract:  In this work, the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) was correlated with the type of wine grape culture (traditional or organic) and their concentration in the different stages of winemaking (must, alcoholic fermentation [AF] and malolactic fermentation [MLF]). The formation of BA occurred mainly during MLF in which the percentages for putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine were 100%, 70%, 13%, 61%, and 44% for the wines produced with traditional grapes and 100%, 94%, 25%, 88%, and 13% for the wines produced with organic grapes, respectively. In general, these latter wines exhibited a lower concentration of total amines. The principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminate analysis indicated that the generation of BA has a certain behavioral pattern in the wines analyzed, which is associated with the different stages of wine production and with the type of culture (traditional or organic) used in the wine grapes.

Practical Application:  Chemometrics tools can be useful as a method of characterization and classification in a global overview of the process variables involved in the development of toxic chemicals in foods, such as the production of BA in wine.

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