Thermal Tolerance and Survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula Supplemented with Vanillin, Ethyl Vanillin, and Vanillic Acid

Authors

  • Gökçe Polat Yemiş,

    1. Author Yemiş is with the Dept. of Food Engineering, Ankara Univ., Diskapi Campus, Ankara 06110, Turkey. Author Pagotto is with Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. Authors Bach and Delaquis are with the Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Pacific AgriFood Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada V0H1Z0. Direct inquiries to author Delaquis (E-mail: pascal.delaquis@agr.gc.ca).
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  • Franco Pagotto,

    1. Author Yemiş is with the Dept. of Food Engineering, Ankara Univ., Diskapi Campus, Ankara 06110, Turkey. Author Pagotto is with Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. Authors Bach and Delaquis are with the Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Pacific AgriFood Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada V0H1Z0. Direct inquiries to author Delaquis (E-mail: pascal.delaquis@agr.gc.ca).
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  • Susan Bach,

    1. Author Yemiş is with the Dept. of Food Engineering, Ankara Univ., Diskapi Campus, Ankara 06110, Turkey. Author Pagotto is with Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. Authors Bach and Delaquis are with the Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Pacific AgriFood Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada V0H1Z0. Direct inquiries to author Delaquis (E-mail: pascal.delaquis@agr.gc.ca).
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  • Pascal Delaquis

    1. Author Yemiş is with the Dept. of Food Engineering, Ankara Univ., Diskapi Campus, Ankara 06110, Turkey. Author Pagotto is with Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9. Authors Bach and Delaquis are with the Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Pacific AgriFood Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada V0H1Z0. Direct inquiries to author Delaquis (E-mail: pascal.delaquis@agr.gc.ca).
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Abstract

Abstract:  The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

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