Abstract: The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.