Concentrations and Bioconcentration Factors of Minerals in Yellow-Cracking Bolete (Xerocomus Subtomentosus) Mushroom Collected in Noteć Forest, Poland

Authors

  • Grażyna Jarzyńska,

    1. Authors Jarzyńska, Chojnacka, Dryżałowska, and Falandysz are with Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology & Food Toxicology, Inst. of Environmental Sciences & Public Health, Univ. of Gdańsk, 18 Sobieskiego Str., 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland. Author Nnorom is with Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State Univ., Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Direct inquiries to author Jarzyńska (E-mail: jarzynska@gmail.com).
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  • Aleksandra Chojnacka,

    1. Authors Jarzyńska, Chojnacka, Dryżałowska, and Falandysz are with Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology & Food Toxicology, Inst. of Environmental Sciences & Public Health, Univ. of Gdańsk, 18 Sobieskiego Str., 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland. Author Nnorom is with Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State Univ., Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Direct inquiries to author Jarzyńska (E-mail: jarzynska@gmail.com).
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  • Anna Dryżałowska,

    1. Authors Jarzyńska, Chojnacka, Dryżałowska, and Falandysz are with Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology & Food Toxicology, Inst. of Environmental Sciences & Public Health, Univ. of Gdańsk, 18 Sobieskiego Str., 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland. Author Nnorom is with Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State Univ., Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Direct inquiries to author Jarzyńska (E-mail: jarzynska@gmail.com).
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  • Innocent C. Nnorom,

    1. Authors Jarzyńska, Chojnacka, Dryżałowska, and Falandysz are with Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology & Food Toxicology, Inst. of Environmental Sciences & Public Health, Univ. of Gdańsk, 18 Sobieskiego Str., 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland. Author Nnorom is with Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State Univ., Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Direct inquiries to author Jarzyńska (E-mail: jarzynska@gmail.com).
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  • Jerzy Falandysz

    1. Authors Jarzyńska, Chojnacka, Dryżałowska, and Falandysz are with Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Ecotoxicology & Food Toxicology, Inst. of Environmental Sciences & Public Health, Univ. of Gdańsk, 18 Sobieskiego Str., 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland. Author Nnorom is with Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State Univ., Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. Direct inquiries to author Jarzyńska (E-mail: jarzynska@gmail.com).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) mushrooms and soil were collected from Noteć Forest–a large forested enclave in western part of Poland. Mercury was determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy and the other elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. K, P, and Mg were particularly abundant, with mean values of 46000, 8400, and 1100 mg/kg dry weight (dw) in caps followed by Na, Rb, Zn, and Ca with mean concentrations of 580, 350, 200, and 170 mg/kg dw, respectively. In descending order, the mean concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, and Mn were 52, 49, 46, and 14 mg/kg dw, while the mean for the remaining elements was around 1.0 mg/kg dw or less. The elements such as Ca, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Ni were accumulated (with bioconcentration factor (BCF) > 1), while Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Sr, Co, Cr, and Pb were excluded (BCF < 1) in the fruiting bodies. The Pb and Cd content did not exceed the maximum levels set by the EU for cultivated mushrooms. Mercury in a conventional meal (300 g) portion of Yellow-cracking Bolete was far below the provisionally tolerable weekly intake of 0.004 mg/kg body weight (bw) as reevaluated recently by WHO.

Practical Application:  The method presented in this study allows one to determine the content of 20 elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Zn) in caps and stipes of Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) mushrooms and soil samples collected from Poland. This study has revealed that the total Cd, Hg, and Pb dose provided to human body due to consumption of Yellow-cracking Bolete does not pose threat to a consumer's health.

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