• anthocyanins;
  • antioxidant;
  • HPLC-MS;
  • muscadine;
  • phenolics

Abstract:  Phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in muscadines have attracted much attention due to their diverse biological activities. With bioassays of antioxidant activities in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total procyanidin content (TPA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of different parts of the Noble muscadine, the butanol (BuOH) extract of the muscadine skin showed the highest TPC (317.91 ± 1.83 mg GAE/100 g FW), which might be ascribed to its high TAC of 227.06 ± 1.29 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the muscadine seed contained the highest TPA (55.30 ± 0.63 mg CE/100 g FW). Correlation analyses demonstrated a significant linear relationship of TPC and TAC compared to their ORAC and FRAP values within the range of R2 from 0.9283 to 0.9936, which suggested that phenolics and anthocyanins in the extracts contributed significantly to their antioxidant potential. Nineteen individual phenolics and 5 anthocyanins were identified by HPLC-MS, which indicated different chemical profiles of anthocyanins and other phenolics in the muscadine extracts.

Practical Application:  The paper has provided rich information of bioactive phytochemical profiles in different solvent extracts and their correlation with the antioxidant activity in the muscadine that is a very special regional fruit in U.S. Its high content of phenolic compounds demonstrates that muscadine could be beneficial to human health.