Industrial Applications of Selected JFS Articles

Nothing is ever easy, is it? One of the featured papers this month deals with vitamin D – the sunshine vitamin which prevents rickets. Getting it from the sun isn't all that easy, with the dermatologist shaking a forefinger at those who don't stay out of the sun to avoid skin cancer. So the government decreed – years ago – that Vitamin D be used to fortify milk – good idea?-But the biggest single use of milk is on cereal, and there is a lot of criticism of children's cereals because of sugar. So how should the industry balance the scale between RTE cereals and lack of vitamin D? Are kids better off with rickets or the chubbies?

Vitamin D Intake Is Low in Both Americans and Canadians

In a paper titled: “Top Food Sources Contributing to Vitamin D Intake and the Association of Ready-to-Eat Cereal and Breakfast Consumption Habits to Vitamin D Intake in Canadians and United States Americans” a number of calcium experts noted that “Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake.” The authors note that Vitamin D intake is generally set according to bone health outcomes, but that Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer, ischemic heart disease, and autoimmune and infectious disease. The IOM committee and the expert task force of the Endocrine Society both noted that the relationships between vitamin D and non-skeletal outcomes warrant further research, but the existing data for such outcomes are too few to base recommendations upon. H170–H175

Major Study Evaluates Over 400 Essential Oils

The major constituents of some 400 essential oils are phenolic terpenes carvacol, thymol, and eugenol. Certain other compounds, including 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, and terpinen-4-ol and several sesquoterpenes, were also shown to destroy free radicals. The specifics, in “Comprehensive Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils” suggests that balancing one's essential oil intake via plant varieties possibly isn't the best way, especially if a particular essential oil or activity is found to deal with a specific human illness. Say the authors, “Essential oils are known to scavenge free radicals and this property makes them important in health maintenance and disease protection. Here, we have analyzed the antioxidant activities of the 423 essential oils from 48 families. Phenolic terpenes (carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol) were present as a major constituent in the most effective oils. In addition, other compounds showed a capacity to scavenge free radicals. While one can supplement ones diet to include different plant species containing essential oils, this will not be the most efficient way to provide health benefits, since it is evident that species from different sources have widely different levels of the specific oils.” The authors suggest that it may be possible to chemically modify these compounds to ones in which the synthetic compounds have more antioxidant activity with lower toxicity. This comprehensive study provides a good start toward the study of essential oils and active ingredients. C839–C843

Chilean Wine Studies May Favor Organic Culture

The use of chemometrics tools (analyses that are based on the use of statistical and mathematical models and computer science) resulted in a classification of the biogenic amine concentrations according to the type of grape culture used for wine production, suggesting that the wines produced with traditionally cultured grapes had a greater concentration of some biogenic amines than those produced with organically cultured grapes. In “Chemometric Analysis for the Detection of Biogenic Amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon Wines: A Comparative Study between Organic and Nonorganic Production,” the authors found that putrecine is the bioamine with the highest concentration in the analyzed wines, independent of the grape type used for production. It is worth noting that these differences in the biogenic amine concentrations were always present in the wines of the region, but the differences were less clear if the commonly used univariate approach was considered as the adequate analysis. T143–T150

Specific Shape of Fats May Help Reduce Obesity

Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols are an example of the increasingly specific forms of fats available to solve functional problems (foaming, for example) and reduce fat accumulation, while providing essential fatty acids. The paper: “Health Benefits, Enzymatic Production, and Application of Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerol (MLCT) in Food Industries: A Review” describes a commercial Japanese product made by enzymatic processes, as well as its advantages and uses. Structured lipids, in one form or another, have been around for a number of years, treated with enzymes or chemicals to change the fatty acid composition, fatty acid position in a TAG molecule, physicochemical properties such as melting properties, solid fat content (SFC), oxidative stability, iodine value, viscosity, and saponification number to enhance their functionality. They have become increasingly more specific. R137–R144

Cereals Coated with High Amylose Films Have Better Bowl Life

Increased bowl life without added sugar is the claim for a coating made from debranched starches from 70% amylose corn starches. The high amylose starch is deposited as a thin film of soluble fibers on the surface of the cereal piece, replacing sugar. In “Application of Enzyme-Treated Corn Starches in Breakfast Cereal Coating,” the increase in bowl life is noted, as well as production improvements such as lack of tackiness when applied through nozzles. The appearance and characteristics of the high amylose starch coatings is distinctive when compared to waxy and common starch coatings. Using a coating that increases the fiber content offers benefits over the use of more easily digested carbohydrates. C901–C906

Emulsifying Salts Offer Texture Variety in Processed Cheese Spreads

In “Effect of the Type of Emulsifying Salt on Microstructure and Rheological Properties of ‘Requeijão Cremoso’ Processed Cheese Spreads,” authors compared various types of emulsifying salts on the microstructure and rheological properties of a spicy cheese spread popular in Brazil. Sodium hexa-meta phosphate proved to produce an excellent network of small fat globules, while sodium citrate (TSC), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), and sodium tripolyphosphate [STPP] behaved like concentrated solutions. The cheese manufactured with SHMP exhibited weak gel behavior and the lowest values for the phase angle G”/G’. This means that the protein network with the largest amount of molecular interactions was obtained for the cheese made with SHMP, which is in agreement with the highest degree of fat emulsification found for this sample. This cheese spread is particularly popular when spread on toast or crackers, so achieving the specific viscosity/rheology is very important to achieve good sales. E176–E181

Fish Waste May Prove a Healthy Antioxidant

The waste – heads, tails, and innards – of Sardinelles (which are sardines to those who eat them in quantity) may prove to be a useful antioxidant for humans under lots of stress. In “Efficacy of Sardinelle Protein Hydrolysate to Alleviate Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Heart of Adult Rats,” a group of scientists from Tunisia studied the effects of a protein hydrolysate against the toxicity of ethanol on adult rat hearts. The hydrolysate was found to be useful in reducing oxidative degradation. The fish waste is a problem for processors, and could become a valuable commodity. Testing and preparation methods are noted in the paper. T156–T162