Get access

Culture-Based and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of the Bacterial Community from Chungkookjang, a Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Food

Authors

  • Sung Wook Hong,

    1. Authors Hong and Chung are with Div. of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei Univ., Wonju, Gangwon 220–710, Republic of Korea. Author Choi is with R & D Center, Maeil Dairies Co. Ltd., Pyungtak, Gyeonggi 451–861, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Chung (E-mail: kschung@yonsei.ac.kr).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jae Young Choi,

    1. Authors Hong and Chung are with Div. of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei Univ., Wonju, Gangwon 220–710, Republic of Korea. Author Choi is with R & D Center, Maeil Dairies Co. Ltd., Pyungtak, Gyeonggi 451–861, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Chung (E-mail: kschung@yonsei.ac.kr).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kun Sub Chung

    1. Authors Hong and Chung are with Div. of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei Univ., Wonju, Gangwon 220–710, Republic of Korea. Author Choi is with R & D Center, Maeil Dairies Co. Ltd., Pyungtak, Gyeonggi 451–861, Republic of Korea. Direct inquiries to author Chung (E-mail: kschung@yonsei.ac.kr).
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Abstract:  The bacterial community of Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Pure cultures were isolated from Chungkookjang and raw rice-straw on tryptic soy agar plates with 72 to 121 colonies and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. The traditional culture-based method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA confirmed that Pantoea agglomerans and B. subtilis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang, respectively, from Iljuk district of Gyeonggi province, P. ananatis and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Wonju district of Gangwon province, and Microbacterium sp. and B. licheniformis were identified as predominant in the raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang from Sunchang district of Jeolla province. Other strains, such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and uncultured bacteria were also present in raw rice-straw and Chungkookjang.

Practical Application:  A comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms would provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of Chungkookjang and help improve its quality. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or more species than the culture-dependent method. This technique is an effective and convenient culture-independent method for studying the bacterial community in Chungkookjang. In this study, the bacterial community of Chungkookjang collected from various areas in South Korea was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

Ancillary