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A Novel Sample Preparation Method Using Rapid Nonheated Saponification Method for the Determination of Cholesterol in Emulsified Foods

Authors

  • In-Seek Jeong,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Byung-Man Kwak,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Jang-Hyuk Ahn,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Donggil Leem,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Taehyung Yoon,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Changyong Yoon,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Jayoung Jeong,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Jung-Min Park,

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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  • Jin-Man Kim

    1. Authors I-S. Jeong, B-M. Kwak, and J-H. Ahn are with Food Safety Center, Research and Development Inst., Namyang Dairy Co., Ltd., Gongju 314-914, Korea. Authors D. Leem, T. Yoon, C. Yoon, and J. Jeong are with Nutrition and Functional Food Research Team, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Osong 363-951, Korea. Authors J-M. Park and J-M. Kim are with Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk Univ., Seoul 143-701, Korea. Direct inquiries to author Kim (E-mail: jinmkim@konkuk.ac.kr).
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Abstract

Abstract:  In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food.

Practical Application:  A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method.

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