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Evaluation of a Modified pH-Shift Process to Reduce 2-Methylisoborneol and Geosmin in Spiked Catfish and Produce a Consumer Acceptable Fried Catfish Nugget-Like Product

Authors

  • T.M. Brown,

    1. Author Brown is with Advanced Pierre Foods, 301 W Broadway Ave., Enid, OK 73701, U.S.A. Author Cerruto-Noya is with UCB, UAC-Carmen Pampa, Coroico-Nor Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia. Author Schrader is with USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Unit Thad Cochran Research Center, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS, 38677-8048, U.S.A. Author Kleinholz is with Langston Univ. Research & Extension, P.O. Box 1730, Langston, OK 73050-1730, U.S.A. Author Mireles DeWitt is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; Seafood Research and Education Center, Oregon State Univ., Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A. Authors Mireles DeWitt, Brown, and Cerruto-Noya were with Dept. of Animal Science, Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dewitt (E-mail: christina.dewitt@oregonstate.edu).
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  • C.A. Cerruto-Noya,

    1. Author Brown is with Advanced Pierre Foods, 301 W Broadway Ave., Enid, OK 73701, U.S.A. Author Cerruto-Noya is with UCB, UAC-Carmen Pampa, Coroico-Nor Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia. Author Schrader is with USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Unit Thad Cochran Research Center, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS, 38677-8048, U.S.A. Author Kleinholz is with Langston Univ. Research & Extension, P.O. Box 1730, Langston, OK 73050-1730, U.S.A. Author Mireles DeWitt is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; Seafood Research and Education Center, Oregon State Univ., Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A. Authors Mireles DeWitt, Brown, and Cerruto-Noya were with Dept. of Animal Science, Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dewitt (E-mail: christina.dewitt@oregonstate.edu).
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  • K.K. Schrader,

    1. Author Brown is with Advanced Pierre Foods, 301 W Broadway Ave., Enid, OK 73701, U.S.A. Author Cerruto-Noya is with UCB, UAC-Carmen Pampa, Coroico-Nor Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia. Author Schrader is with USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Unit Thad Cochran Research Center, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS, 38677-8048, U.S.A. Author Kleinholz is with Langston Univ. Research & Extension, P.O. Box 1730, Langston, OK 73050-1730, U.S.A. Author Mireles DeWitt is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; Seafood Research and Education Center, Oregon State Univ., Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A. Authors Mireles DeWitt, Brown, and Cerruto-Noya were with Dept. of Animal Science, Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dewitt (E-mail: christina.dewitt@oregonstate.edu).
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  • C.W. Kleinholz,

    1. Author Brown is with Advanced Pierre Foods, 301 W Broadway Ave., Enid, OK 73701, U.S.A. Author Cerruto-Noya is with UCB, UAC-Carmen Pampa, Coroico-Nor Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia. Author Schrader is with USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Unit Thad Cochran Research Center, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS, 38677-8048, U.S.A. Author Kleinholz is with Langston Univ. Research & Extension, P.O. Box 1730, Langston, OK 73050-1730, U.S.A. Author Mireles DeWitt is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; Seafood Research and Education Center, Oregon State Univ., Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A. Authors Mireles DeWitt, Brown, and Cerruto-Noya were with Dept. of Animal Science, Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dewitt (E-mail: christina.dewitt@oregonstate.edu).
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  • C.A. Mireles DeWitt

    1. Author Brown is with Advanced Pierre Foods, 301 W Broadway Ave., Enid, OK 73701, U.S.A. Author Cerruto-Noya is with UCB, UAC-Carmen Pampa, Coroico-Nor Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia. Author Schrader is with USDA-ARS Natural Products Utilization Unit Thad Cochran Research Center, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS, 38677-8048, U.S.A. Author Kleinholz is with Langston Univ. Research & Extension, P.O. Box 1730, Langston, OK 73050-1730, U.S.A. Author Mireles DeWitt is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331; Seafood Research and Education Center, Oregon State Univ., Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A. Authors Mireles DeWitt, Brown, and Cerruto-Noya were with Dept. of Animal Science, Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, U.S.A. Direct inquiries to author Dewitt (E-mail: christina.dewitt@oregonstate.edu).
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Abstract

Abstract:  Muddy and/or musty off-flavors in farmed-raised catfish occur as a result of the absorption of geosmin (GEO) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), compounds produced by algae. Previous research suggests the acid pH-shift method may be able to reduce off-flavors to produce a consumer acceptable product. The objective of this research was to evaluate application of the acid pH-shift method using a shaker sieve for protein recovery and to evaluate consumer acceptability of a resultant batter-coated fried nugget-like catfish product. Farm-raised catfish were either allowed to depurate (control) or treated with 1 ppb GEO or MIB. Fillets from each replicate were collected and ground and treated by the acid pH-shift process. Samples from all treatments and replicates were evaluated for residual GEO and MIB. In addition, batter-coated fried catfish samples were prepared for a consumer sensory evaluation. Results demonstrated that the pH-shift process decreased moisture, ash, and collagen content of catfish fillet tissue (P < 0.05). Flavor of control samples was preferred (P < 0.05). Texture of catfish samples treated by the pH-shift process was preferred (P < 0.05). Results demonstrate the pH-shift process can be utilized to reduce off-flavors and increase the acceptability of a processed catfish product.

Practical Application:  Use of a sieve as an economic alternative for the pH-shift process was evaluated for removing off-flavors from catfish. Difficulties were encountered with regard to protein recovery using the sieve and suggestions are made to, perhaps, make the process more applicable for a sieve-based recovery step. The process as described reduced off-flavors, but only 2-fold suggesting the process would work best on catfish near or just over off-flavor thresholds. Results also indicated the pH-shift process could be used to improve texture of a fried catfish product designed to be similar to chicken nuggets.

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