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Keywords:

  • margarine;
  • omega-3 fatty acids;
  • stearidonic acid;
  • structured lipid;
  • trans-free

Abstract:  Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been positively associated with prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Intake of high amounts of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, inflammation, and cancer. Structured lipid (SL) was synthesized using stearidonic acid (SDA) soybean oil and high-stearate soybean oil catalyzed by Lipozyme® TLIM lipase. The SL was compared to extracted fat (EF) from a commercial brand for FA profile, sn-2 positional FAs, triacylglycerol (TAG) profile, polymorphism, thermal behavior, oxidative stability, and solid fat content (SFC). Both SL and EF had similar saturated FA (about 31 mol%) and unsaturated FA (about 68 mol%), but SL had a much lower n-6/n-3 ratio (1.1) than EF (5.8). SL had 10.5 mol% SDA. After short-path distillation, a loss of 53.9% was observed in the total tocopherol content of SL. The tocopherols were lost as free tocopherols. SL and EF had similar melting profile, β’ polymorph, and oxidative stability. Margarine was formulated using SL (SLM) and EF (RCM, reformulated commercial margarine). No sensory difference was observed between the 2 margarines. The SL synthesized in this study contained no TFA and possessed desirable polymorphism, thermal properties, and SFC for formulation of soft margarine. The margarine produced with this SL was trans-free and SDA-enriched.

Practical Application:  The current research increases the food applications of stearidonic acid (SDA) soybean oil. trans-Free SDA containing SL was synthesized with desirable polymorph, thermal properties, and SFC for formulation of soft margarine. The margarine produced with this SL had no trans fat and had a low n-6/n-3 ratio. This may help in reducing trans fat intake in our diet while increasing n-3 FA intake.