Folate Content and Composition of Vegetables Commonly Consumed in China

Authors

  • M. J. I. Shohag,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Yanyan Wei,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Ning Yu,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Lingli Lu,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Jie Zhang,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Zhenli He,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Johan Patring,

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Xiaoe Yang

    1. Authors Shohag, Wei, Yu, Lu, Zhang, and Yang are with Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, Peoples Republic of China. Author He is with Indian River Research and Education Center, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Author Patring is with the Organic Risk Pollutants Laboratory, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Direct inquiries to author Yang (E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com).
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  • Abstract was published in the abstracts book (I.S.B.N.: 978-84-694-3922-7) of the 3rd Intl Symposium on Trace Element and Health, Murcia, Spain, 24–27 May 2011.

Abstract

Abstract:  Folate deficiency increases the risk of chronic diseases, including neural tube defects (NTDs) in infants, megaloblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers in adults. China is the most NTDs prevalent area in the world. Folate deficiency in China can be reduced by proper supply of fresh leafy green vegetables but little is known about the folate content and vitamers in the vegetables commonly consumed by Chinese population. The purposes of this study were first to analyze most commonly consumed important vegetables that contribute to folate intake in the Chinese population and second to estimate the significance of selected vegetables as a source of dietary folate intake. Folate content and vitamers forms in vegetables were analyzed using a valid liquid chromatography method. Monoenzyme treatment was used for leafy green and some fruit vegetables, and dienzyme treatment for some root vegetables. Total folate content in commonly consumed vegetables ranged from 14.78 to 145.54 μg/100 g in edible portion with an average of 61.99 μg/100 g. The highest folate content (>140 μg/100 g) was found in pak choi and spinach. Total folate contents in leafy vegetables, fruit vegetables, and root vegetables were in the range of 17.22 to 145.54 μg/100g, 18.14 to 86.04 μg/100g, and 14.78 to75.81 μg/100g, respectively. The considerable variations in folate content were found in different types of vegetables commonly consumed by Chinese population. Leafy vegetables are a better source of folate than fruit and root vegetables commonly consumed by Chinese population.

Practical Application:  Data from this research would facilitate to accurately establish the actual folate intake by Chinese population. Our folate composition data on vegetables can be incorporated into the national food databases. Availability of such data is essential for estimating folate intake and defining an optimal level for fortification program in China.

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