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Effect of the Prefermentative Addition of Five Enological Tannins on Anthocyanins and Color in Red Wines

Authors

  • Yan-Xia Liu,

    1. Authors are with Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Liu is also with Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union Univ., Beijing 100191, China. Direct inquiries to author Duan (E-mail: chqduan@yahoo.com.cn).
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Na-Na Liang,

    1. Authors are with Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Liu is also with Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union Univ., Beijing 100191, China. Direct inquiries to author Duan (E-mail: chqduan@yahoo.com.cn).
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Jun Wang,

    1. Authors are with Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Liu is also with Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union Univ., Beijing 100191, China. Direct inquiries to author Duan (E-mail: chqduan@yahoo.com.cn).
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  • Qiu-Hong Pan,

    1. Authors are with Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Liu is also with Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union Univ., Beijing 100191, China. Direct inquiries to author Duan (E-mail: chqduan@yahoo.com.cn).
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  • Chang-Qing Duan

    1. Authors are with Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100083, China. Author Liu is also with Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functional Foods, College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union Univ., Beijing 100191, China. Direct inquiries to author Duan (E-mail: chqduan@yahoo.com.cn).
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Abstract

Abstract:  The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in “Cabernet Sauvignon wines” at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives.

Practical Application:  The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color.

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