Anticipating Happiness in a Future Negotiation: Anticipated Happiness, Propensity to Initiate a Negotiation, and Individual Outcomes


  • We thank Center for Research in Economics and Strategy (CRES) at Washington University in St. Louis for funding our first study. We also appreciate the feedback from the editor and reviewers of Negotiation and Conflict Management Research and two anonymous reviewers of the 23rd annual meeting of International Association for Conflict Management.

Dejun Tony Kong, Campus Box 1133, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, U.S.A.; e-mail:


We examined the role of anticipated happiness in negotiation settings. Anticipated happiness is the happiness that individuals expect to experience in the future if certain events do or do not occur. In two studies, we tested the argument that anticipated happiness initiates an approach goal, leading individuals to promote economic interests. Study 1 revealed that anticipated happiness was positively related to the propensity to initiate a negotiation, mediated by an approach goal. In Study 2, we found that anticipated happiness about reaching the target value increased the individual negotiation outcome, mediated by actual target value. Our studies provide insight into how anticipated happiness influences motivation, behavior, and ultimately individual outcomes in negotiations.