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Efficacy of macrocyclic lactones for the control of larvae of the Old World Screw-worm Fly (Chrysomya bezziana)



Objective To assess the efficacy of four macrocyclic lactones for the control of larvae of the Old World Screw-worm Fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana, and to examine the effects of excreted residues on the dung fauna.

Animals 100 heifers were divided into five groups of 20 animals. One group remained untreated, whereas the other groups were treated respectively with pour-on formulations of moxidectin, eprinomectin or doramectin, or a sustained-release bolus of ivermectin.

Procedures At intervals of 1 to 15 weeks after treatment, five cattle from each group were challenged with newly-laid eggs of OWS. The efficacy of each treatment was determined 48 h later by comparing the number of myiases in the treated and untreated groups. Abundance of fly larvae in naturally-voided dung pads and the survival of a species of dung beetle, Onthophagus sagittarius, were used to assess the effects of drug residues on the dung fauna.

Results and Conclusions Moxidectin showed no activity against larvae of OWS during the first 14 days after treatment. Eprinomectin provided protection for 3 days after dosing, but failed at days 7 and 14, whereas doramectin was effective at day 7, but not at days 14 or 21. In contrast, no myiases were established on bolus-treated cattle from 14 to 102 days after treatment. Faecal residues of moxidectin had no effect on the survival of larvae of dung-feeding flies, whereas those of eprino-mectin and doramectin reduced survival for 1 to 2 weeks. Dung voided by bolus-treated cattle inhibited fly breeding and had adverse effects on the development and survival of O sagittarius for up to 15 weeks after treatment.