• Australia;
  • bacterial diseases;
  • livestock;
  • neurological diseases;
  • protozoal diseases;
  • ruminants

Bacteria (including chlamydia) and protozoa can produce neurological disease in Australian ruminant livestock and the nature of the inflammatory and neuroparenchymal response is often suggestive of a particular aetiological agent. An overview of the clinicopathological features of infectious disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) is followed by a discussion of important bacterial and protozoal infections in Australia. Each infectious disease is discussed in terms of classification and pathogenesis linked to clinical signs and gross and microscopic findings. The literature review is restricted to infectious conditions causing CNS disease in Australia. Sources include the Australian Veterinary Journal (over 50 years of articles), the quarterly newsletter of the National Animal Health Surveillance System and the Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly.