Torsion of quadrate and right middle liver lobes and gallbladder in a German Shepherd dog



Background  An 11-year-old female German Shepherd was referred for assessment and management of a suspected liver tumour. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed abundant abdominal effusion and a right liver mass in continuity with a cystic structure. The dog had undergone splenectomy for a low-grade lymphoma 1 year prior.

Methods  Serum biochemical analysis revealed only a mild increase in alanine aminotransferase. The analysis of the free abdominal fluid showed a modified transudate. Ultrasound confirmed the presence of a hypoechoic lesion involving the right liver lobes, in addition to an over-distended gallbladder. Computed tomography examination demonstrated a massively dilated gallbladder and lower attenuation of the adjacent liver lobes, with no enhancement on quadrate and right middle liver lobes. The fine needle aspirate was compatible with a mixed subacute to chronic inflammation. Based on the investigational findings, an exploratory coeliotomy was performed.

Treatment and outcome  The middle right and quadrate liver lobes and the gallbladder were rotated on their axes. The torsed lobes and the cystic duct were removed using a TA stapler without derotating the organs. Histopathological results were suggestive of infarction secondary to torsion of the lobes and gallbladder. The dog recovered from surgery without complications, and 20 months later was in good overall condition.

Conclusion  Liver lobe torsion is an uncommon condition that rarely affects the right lobes. Gallbladder torsion is even more uncommon. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of quadrate and right middle liver lobe and gallbladder torsion.