EFFECTS OF ARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION AND SNOW ON UV EXPOSURE IN FINLAND

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Abstract

The increase in the UV exposure of the Finnish population associated with the combined effects of ozone depletion and snow reflection was studied with the aid of theoretical calculations based on Green's clear sky UV model. A simple formula was utilized to transform horizontal irradiances to vertical irradiances averaged over 360 azimuth angle. The model was verified with spectral and broadband measurements. The difference between the theoretical and measured UV radiation falling to horizontal surfaces was in most cases less than ±10%, and the additional error to theoretical vertical irradiances was less than ± 10%. The calculations show that the annual horizontal doses in Helsinki (60.2°N, 25°E) are about 35% higher than in Saariselkä (68.4°N, 27.5°E), but the difference is only 16% for vertical doses owing to the stronger contribution to vertical (facial) surfaces of the reflection of UV from snow. At Saariselkä, the maximum vertical irradiance at the end of April approaches the midsummer values. The ozone depletions up to 40% in February and March 1992 had no significant effect on the annual doses because the total ozone returned to normal before the UV increased to biologically significant levels.

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