• 1
    Kripke, M. L. (1990) Photoimmunology. Photochem. Pkotobiol. 52, 919924.
  • 2
    Roberts, L. K., D. H. Lynch, W. E. Samlowski and R. A. Daynes (1989) Ultraviolet radiation and modulation of immunity. Immunol. Ser. 46, 167215.
  • 3
    Cooper, K. D., L. Oberhelman, T. A. Hamilton, O. Baadsgaard, M. Terhune, G. Levee, T. Anderson and H. Koren (1992) UV exposure reduces immunization rates and promotes tolerance to epicutaneous antigens in humans: relationship to dose, CDla DR+ epidermal macrophage induction, and Langerhans cell depletion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 84978501.
  • 4
    Tie, C, C. Golomb, J. R. Taylor and J. W. Streilein (1995) Suppressive and enhancing effect of ultraviolet B radiation on expression of contact hypersensitivity in man. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 1822.
  • 5
    Yoshikawa, T. V. Rae, W. Bruins-Slot, J. W. Vand-den-Berg, J. R. Taylor and J. W. Streilein (1990) Susceptibility to effects of UVB radiation on induction of contact hypersensitivity as a risk factor for skin cancer in humans. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95, 530536.
  • 6
    Kripke, M. L., C. G. Munn, A. Jeevan, J.-M. Tang and C. Bucana (1990) Evidence that cutaneous antigen-presenting cells migrate to regional lymph nodes during contact sensitization. J. Immunol. 145, 28332838.
  • 7
    Bucana, C, C. G. Munn, M. J. Song, K. Dunner and M. L. Kripke (1992) Internalization of la molecules into Birbeck granule-like structures in murine dendritic cells. J. Invest. Dermatol. 99, 365373.
  • 8
    Bucana, C, J.-M. Tang, K. Dunner, F. M. Strickland and M. L. Kripke (1994) Phenotypic and ultrastructural properties of antigen presenting cells involved in contact sensitization of normal and UV-irradiated mice. J. Invest. Dermatol. 102, 928933.
  • 9
    Muller, H. K., C. D. Bucana, M. L. Kripke, P. A. Cox, S. Saijo and F. M. Strickland (1994) UV-irradiation of murine skin alters cluster formation between lymph node dendritic cells and specific T lymphocytes. Cell Immunol. 157, 263276.
  • 10
    Cumberbatch, M. and I. Kimber (1990) Phenotypic characteristics of antigen-bearing cells in the draining lymph nodes of contact sensitized mice. Immunology 71, 404410.
  • 11
    Cumberbatch, M., I. Illingworth and I. Kimber (1991) Antigen bearing dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes of contact sensitized mice: cluster formation with lymphocytes. Immunology 74, 139145.
  • 12
    Cumberbatch, M., S. J. Gould, S. W. Peters and I. Kimber (1991) MHC class II expression by Langerhans cells and lymph node cells: possible evidence for maturation of Langerhans cells following contact hypersensitivity. Immunology 74, 414419.
  • 13
    Cumberbatch, M., S. W. Peters, S. J. Gould and I. Kimber (1992) Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by lymph node dendritic cells: comparison with epidermal Langerhans cells. Immunol. Lett. 32, 105110.
  • 14
    Romani, N., C. Heufler, F. Koch, G. Topar, E. Kampgen and G. Schuler (1994) Cytokines and Langerhans cells. In Epidermal Growth Factors and Cytokines (Edited by T. A.Luger and T.Schwarz), pp. 345364. Marcel Dekker, New York .
  • 15
    Tang, A., M. Amagai, L. G. Granger, J. R. Stanley and M. C. Udey (1993) Adhesion of epidermal Langerhans cells to kera-tinocytes mediated by E-cadherin. Nature 361, 8285.
  • 16
    Roop, D. (1995) Defects in the barrier. Science 267, 474475.
  • 17
    Piguet, P., G. E. Grau, C. Hauser and P. Vassalli (1992) Tumor necrosis factor is a critical mediator in hapten-induced irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. J. Exp. Med. 173, 673679.
  • 18
    Enk, A. H. and S. I. Katz (1992) Early molecular events in the induction phase of contact hypersensitivity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 13891402.
  • 19
    Grabbe, S. S. Bruvers, R. L. Gallo, T. L. Knisely, R. Nazareno and R. D. Granstein (1991) Tumor antigen presentation by murine epidermal cells. J. Immunol. 146, 36563661.
  • 20
    Grabbe, S., S. Bruvers, A. M. Lindgren, J. Hosoi, K. C. Tan and R. D. Granstein (1992) Tumor antigen presentation by epidermal antigen-presenting cells in the mouse: modulation by GM-CSF, TNF-α, and UV radiation. J. Leukocyte Biol. 52, 209217.
  • 21
    Beissert, S., J. Hosoi, S. Grabbe, A. Asahina and R. D. Granstein (1995) IL-10 inhibits tumor antigen presentation by epidermal antigen-presenting cells. J. Immunol. 154, 12801286.
  • 22
    Cumberbatch, M. and I. Kimber (1992) Dermal tumor necrosis factor-a induces dendritic cell migration to draining lymph node cells and possibly provides one stimulus for Langerhans cell migration. Immunology 75, 257263.
  • 23
    Cumberbatch, M., I. Fielding and I. Kimber (1994) Modulation of epidermal Langerhans cells frequency by tumor necrosis factor-a. Immunology 81, 395401.
  • 24
    Caux, C, C. Dezutter-Dambuyant, D. Schmitt and J. Banchereau (1992) GM-CSF and TNF-α cooperate in the generation of dendritic Langerhans cells. Nature 360, 258261.
  • 25
    Enk, A. H., V. L. Angeloni, M. C. Udey and S. I. Katz (1993) An essential role for Langerhans cell-derived IL-1 beta in the initiation of primary immune responses in skin. J. Immunol. 150, 36983704.
  • 26
    Tripp, C. S., S. Wolf and E. R. Unanue (1993) Interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are costimulators of interferon gamma production by natural killer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice with listeriosis, and interleukin 10 is a physiologic antagonist. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 37253729.
  • 27
    Scott, P. (1993) IL-12: initiation cytokine for cell-mediated immunity. Science 260, 496497.
  • 28
    Mosmann, T. R., J. H. Schumacher, N. F. Street, R. Buss, A. O'Garra, T. A. T. Fong, M. W. Bond, K. W. M. Moore, A. Sher and D. F. Fiorentino (1991) Diversity of cytokine synthesis and function of mouse CD4+ T cells. Immunol. Rev. 123, 209229.
  • 29
    Salgame, R., J. S. Abrams, C. Clayberger, H. Goldstein, J. Convit, R. L. Modlin and B. R. Bloom (1991) Differing lymphokine profiles of functional subsets of human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science 254, 279282.
  • 30
    Romagnani, S., G. Del Prente, P. Parronchi, M. De Carli, D. Macchia, S. Sampognaro, M.-P. Piccinni, M.-G. Giudizi, R. Bia-giotti and F. Almerigogna (1993) Human Thl and Th2 subsets. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 99, 242245.
  • 31
    Subash, S., R. Marcotte and T. R. Mosmann (1995) Cytokine-induced differentiation of precursor mouse CD8+ T cells into cytotoxic CD8+ T cells secreting Thl or Th2 cytokines. Immunity 2, 271279.
  • 32
    Fiorentino, D. F., M. W. Bond and T. R. Mosmann (1989) Two types of mouse helper cells. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Thl clones. J. Exp. Med. 170, 20812095.
  • 33
    Manetti, R., P. Parronchi, M. G. Giudizi, M.-P. Piccinni, E. Maggi, G. Trinchieri and S. Romagnani (1993) Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (interleukin-12) induces T helper type 1-specific immune responses and inhibits the development of IL-4-producing Th cells. J. Exp. Med. 177, 11991204.
  • 34
    Hsieh, C.-S., S. E. Macatonia, C. S. Tripp, S. F. Wolf, A. O'Garra and K. M. Murphy (1993) Development of Thl CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages. Science 260, 547549.
  • 35
    McKnight, A. J., G. J. Zimmer, I. Fogelman, S. F. Wolf and A. K. Abbas (1994) Effects of IL-12 on helper cell-dependent immune responses in vivo. J. Immunol. 152, 21722179.
  • 36
    Hsieh, C.-S., A. B. Heimberger, J. S. Gold, A. O'Garra and K. M. Murphy (1992) Differential regulation of T helper phenotype development by interleukins 4 and 10 in an αβ T-cell-receptor transgenic system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 60656069.
  • 37
    Aragane, Y., H. Riemann, R. S. Bhardwaj, A. Schwarz, Y. Sawada, H. Yamada, T. A. Luger, M. Kubin, G. Trinchieri and T. Schwarz (1994) IL-12 is expressed and released by human ker-atinocytes and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. J. Immunol. 153, 53665372.
  • 38
    Müller, G., J. Saloga, T. Germann, I. Bellinghausen, M. Mo-hamadzadeh, J. Knopp and A. H. Enk (1994) Identification and induction of human keratinocyte-derived IL-12. J. Clin. Invest. 94, 17991805.
  • 39
    DeKruyff, R. H., Y. Fang, S. F. Wolf and D. T. Umetsu (1995) IL-12 inhibits IL-4 synthesis in keyhole limpet hemocyanin-primed CD4+ T cells through an effect on antigen-presenting cells. J. Immunol. 154, 25782587.
  • 40
    Chang, C.-H., M. Furue and K. Tamaki (1994) Selective regulation of ICAM-1 and MHC class I and II molecule expression on epidermal Langerhans cells by some of the cytokine release by keratinocytes and T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 24, 28892895.
  • 41
    Rivas, J. M. and S. E. Ullrich (1992) Systemic suppression of DTH by supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocytes: an essential role for interleukin 10. J. Immunol. 149, 38653871.
  • 42
    Cher, D. J. and T. R. Mosmann (1987) Two types of murine helper T cell clones: II. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is mediated by Thl clones. J. Immunol. 138, 36883694.
  • 43
    Becker, D. and J. Knop (1994) Epidermal cell-derived cytokines and delayed type hypersensitivity. In Epidermal Growth Factors and Cytokines (Edited by T. A.Luger and T.Schwarz), pp. 365376. Marcel Dekker, New York .
  • 44
    van der Heijden, F. L., E. A. Wierenga, J. D. Bos and M. L. Kapsenberg (1991) High frequency of IL-4-producing CD4+ allergen-specific T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis lesional skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 97, 389394.
  • 45
    Müller, K. M., F. Jaunin, I. Masouyé, J.-H. Saurat and C. Hauser (1993) Th2 cells mediate IL-4-dependent local tissue inflammation. J. Immunol. 150, 55765584.
  • 46
    Müller, K. A., F. Jaunin, Masouyé, P.F. Piguet, J.-H. Saurat and C. Hauser (1995) Involvement of granulocytes and the adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in tissue inflammation induced by Th2-type helper cells. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 350354.
  • 47
    Scheynius, A., R. L. Camp and E. Puré (1993) Reduced contact hypersensitivity reactions in mice treated with monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte function-associated molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J. Immunol. 150, 655663.
  • 48
    Krutmann, J. (1994) Regulatory interactions between epidermal cell adhesion molecules and cytokines. In Epidermal Growth Factors and Cytokines 10 (Edited by T. A.Luger and T.Schwarz), pp. 415531. Marcel Dekker, New York .
  • 49
    Norris, D. A., M. B. Lyons, M. H. Middleton, J. J. Yohn and M. Kashihara-Swami (1990) Ultraviolet radiation can either suppress or induce expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured human keratino-cytes. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95, 132138.
  • 50
    Krutmann, J. A., E. Kock, E. Schauer, F. Parlow, A. Moller, A. Kapp, E. Schopf and T. A. Luger (1990) Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet light are potent regulators of human kera-tinocyte ICAM-1 expression. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95, 127131.
  • 51
    Krutmann, J., W. Czech, F. Parlow, W. Trefzer, A. Kapp, E. Schopf and T. A. Luger (1992) Ultraviolet radiation effects on human keratinocytes ICAM-1 expression: UV-induced inhibition of cytokine-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression is transient, differentially restored for IFN-y versus TNFa, and followed by ICAM-1 induction via a TNFa-like pathway. J. Invest. Dermatol. 98, 923928.
  • 52
    Yoshikawa, T. and J. W. Streilein (1990) Genetic basis of the effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity. Evidence that polymorphism at the Tnfa and Lps loci governs susceptibility. Immunogenetics 32, 298305.
  • 53
    Yoshikawa, T. and J. W. Streilein (1990) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ultraviolet light have similar effects on contact hypersensitivity in mice. Reg. Immunol. 3, 139144.
  • 54
    Vincek, V., I. Kurimoto, J. P. Medema, E. Prieto and J. W. Streilein (1993) Tumor necrosis factor ct polymorphism correlates with deleterious effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity. Cancer Res. 53, 728732.
  • 55
    Vermeer, M. and J. W. Streilein (1990) Ultraviolet-B-light induced alterations in epidermal Langerhans cells are mediated by tumor necrosis-alpha. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photo-med. 7, 258265.
  • 56
    Noonan, F. P. and E. C. De Fabo (1992) Immunosuppression by ultraviolet B radiation: initiation by urocanic acid. Immunol. Today 13, 250257.
  • 57
    Kurimoto, I. and J. W. Streilein (1992) Cis-urocanic acid suppression of contact hypersensitivity induction is mediated via tumor necrosis factor-a. J. Immunol. 148, 30723078.
  • 58
    Moodycliffe, A. M., M. Norval and I. Kimber (1994) Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ultraviolet B light-induced dendritic cell migration and suppression of contact hypersensitivity. Immunology 81, 7984.
  • 59
    Shimizu, T. and J. W. Streilein (1994) Local and systemic consequences of acute low-dose ultraviolet B radiation are mediated by different immune regulatory mechanisms. Eur. J. Immunol. 24, 17651770.
  • 60
    Shimizu, T. and J. W. Streilein (1994) Evidence that ultraviolet. B radiation induces tolerance and impairs induction of contact hypersensitivity by different mechanisms. Immunology 82, 140–148.
  • 61
    Kurimoto, I., M. Arana and J. W. Streilein (1994) Role of dermal cells from normal and ultraviolet B-damaged skin in induction of contact hypersensitivity and tolerance. J. Immunol. 152, 33173323.
  • 62
    Kurimoto, I., N. Van Rooijen, C. D. Dijkstra and J. W. Streilein (1994) Role of phagocytic macrophages in induction of contact hypersensitivity and tolerance by hapten applied to normal and ultraviolet B-irradiated skin. Immunology 82, 281287.
  • 63
    de Kossodo, S., P. D. Cruz, I. Dougherty, P. Thompson, M. Silva-Valdez and B. Beutler (1995) Expression of the tumor necrosis factor gene by dermal fibroblasts in response to ultraviolet irradiation or lipopolysaccharide. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 318322.
  • 64
    Enk, A. H. V. Angeloni, M. C. Udey and S. I. Katz (1993) Inhibition of Langerhans cell antigen-presenting function by IL-10: a role for IL-10 in induction of tolerance. J. Immunol. 151, 23902398.
  • 65
    Ullrich, S. E. (1994) Mechanism involved in the systemic suppression of antigen-presenting cell function by UV irradiation: keratinocyte-derived IL-10 modulates antigen-presenting cell function of splenic adherent cells. J. Immunol. 152, 34103416.
  • 66
    Moore, K. W., A. O'Garra, R. De Waal Malefyt, P. Vieira and T. R. Mosmann (1993) Interleukin-10. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 11, 165190.
  • 67
    Ding, L., P. S. Linsley, L.-Y. Huang, R. N. Germain and E. M. Shevach (1993) IL-10 inhibits macrophage costimulatory activity by selectively inhibiting the up-regulation of B7 expression. J. Immunol. 151, 12241234.
  • 68
    Fiorentino, D. F., A. Zlotnik, P. Vieira, T. R. Mosmann, M. Howard, K. W. Moore and A. O'Garra (1991) IL-10 acts on the antigen-presenting cell to inhibit cytokine production by Thl cells. J. Immunol. 146, 34443451.
  • 69
    Cassatella, M. A., L. Meda, S. Bonora, M. Ceska and G. Con-stantin (1993) IL-10 inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Evidence for an autocrine role of TNF and IL-1β in mediating the production of IL-8 triggered by LPS. J. Exp. Med. 178, 22072211.
  • 70
    Kasama, T. R. Strieter, N. W. Lukacs, M. D. Burdick and S. L. Kunkel (1994) Regulation of neutrophil-derived chemokine expression by IL-10. J. Immunol. 152, 35593569.
  • 71
    Cassatella, M. A. L. Meda, S. Gasperini, F. Calzetti and S. Bonora (1994) Interleukin 10 up regulates IL-1 receptor antagonist production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by delaying mRNA degradation. J. Exp. Med. 179, 16951699.
  • 72
    Mertz, P. M., D. L. DeWitt, W. G. Stetler-Stevenson and L. M. Wahl (1994) Interleukin-10 suppression of monocyte prostaglandin H synthase-2: mechanism of inhibition of prostaglandin-dependent matrix metalloproteinase production. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2132221329.
  • 73
    Grewe, M., K. Gyufko and J. Krutmann (1995) Interleukin-10 production by cultured human keratinocytes: regulation by UVB and UVA1 radiation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 36.
  • 74
    Enk, C. D., D. Sredni, A. Blauvelt and S. I. Katz (1995) Induction of IL-10 gene expression in human keratinocytes by UVB exposure in vivo and in vitro. J. Immunol. 154, 48514856.
  • 75
    Rivas, J. M. and S. E. Ullrich (1994) The role of IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α in the immune suppression induced by ultraviolet radiation. J. Leukocyte Biol. 56, 769775.
  • 76
    Enk, A. H., J. Saloga, D. Becker, M. Mohamadzadeh and J. Knop (1994) Induction of hapten-specific tolerance by interleukin-10 in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 179, 13971402.
  • 77
    Schwarz, A., S. Grabbe, H. Reimann, Y. Aragane, M. Simon, S. Manon, S. Andrade, T. A. Luger, A. Zlotnik and T. Schwarz (1994) In vivo effects of interleukin-10 on contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. J. Invest. Dermatol. 103, 211216.
  • 78
    Kang, K., C. Hammerberg, L. Meunier and K. D. Cooper (1994) CDllb+ macrophages that infiltrate human epidermis after in vivo ultraviolet exposure potently produce IL-10 and represent the major secretory source of epidermal IL-10. J. Immunol. 153, 52565264.
  • 79
    Hammerberg, C, N. Duraiswamy and K. D. Cooper (1994) Active induction of unresponsiveness (tolerance) to DNFB by in vivo ultraviolet-exposed epidermal cells is dependent upon infiltrating class II MHC+CD1lbbright monocytic/macrophagic cells. J. Immunol. 153, 49144924.
  • 80
    Moodycliffe, A. M., M. Norval, I. Kimber and T. J. Simpson (1993) Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to cis-urocanic acid: detection of cis-urocanic acid in the serum of irradiated mice by immunoassay. Immunology 79, 667672.
  • 81
    Gibbs, N. K. M. Norval, N. A. Traynor, M. Wolf, B. E. Johnson and J. Crosby (1993) Action spectra for the trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in vitro and in mouse skin. Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 584590.
  • 82
    Reeve, V. E., C. Boehm-Wilcox, M. Bosnic, R. Cope and R. D. Ley (1994) Lack of correlation between suppression of contact hypersensitivity by UV radiation and photosensitization of epidermal urocanic acid in the hairless mouse. Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 268273.
  • 83
    Applegate, L. A., R. D. Ley, J. Alcalay and M. L. Kripke (1989) Identification of the molecular target for the suppression of contact hypersensitivity by UV radiation. J. Exp. Med. 170, 11171131.
  • 84
    Kripke, M. L., P. A. Cox, L. G. Alas and D. B. Yarosh (1992) Pyrimidine dimers in DNA initiate systemic immunosuppression in UV-irradiated mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 75167520.
  • 85
    Schmitt, D. A., L. Owen-Schaub and S. E. Ullrich (1995) The effect of interleukin-12 on immune suppression and suppressor cell induction by ultraviolet radiation. J. Immunol. 154. (In press).
  • 86
    Grabbe, S., S. Bruvers, S. Beissert and R. D. Granstein (1994) Interferon–γ inhibits tumor antigen presentation by epidermal antigen-presenting cells. J. Leukocyte Biol. 55, 695701.
  • 87
    Simon, J. C., R. E. Tigelaar, P. R. Bergstresser, D. Edelbaum and P. D. Cruz (1991) Ultraviolet B radiation converts Langer-hans cells from immunogenic to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells: induction of specific clonal anergy in CD4+ T helper 1 cells. J. Immunol. 146, 485491.
  • 88
    Nickoloff, B. J. D. P. Fivenson, S. L. Kunkel, R. M. Strieter and L. A. Turka (1994) Keratinocyte IL-10 expression is upregulated in tape-stripped skin, poison ivy dermatitis, and Sezary Syndrome, but not in psoriatic plaques. Clin. Immunol, lmmunopathol. 73, 6368.
  • 89
    Mitra, R. S., T. A. Judge, F. O. Nestle, L. A. Turka and B. J. Nickoloff (1995) Psoriatic skin-derived dendritic cell function is inhibited by exogenous IL-10: differential modulation of B7–1(CD80) and B7–2(CD86) expression. J. Immunol. 154, 26682677.
  • 90
    Ohmen, J. D., J. M. Hanifin, B. J. Nickoloff, T. H. Rea, R. Wyzykowski, J. Kim, D. Jullien, T. McHugh, A. S. Nassif, S. C. Chan and R. L. Modlin (1995) Overexpression of IL-10 in atopic dermatitis: contrasting cytokine patterns with delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. J. Immunol. 145, 19561963.
  • 91
    Clerici, M., A. Sarin, R. L. Coffman, T. A. Wynn, S. P. Blatt, C. W. Hendrix, S. F. Wolf, G. M. Shearer and P. A. Henkart (1994) Type 1/type 2 cytokine modulation of T-cell programmed cell death as a model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 1181111815.
  • 92
    Clerici, M., T. A. Wynn, J. A. Berzofsky, S. P. Blatt, C. W. Hendrix, A. Sher, R. L. Coffman and G. M. Shearer (1994) Role of interleukin-10 in T helper cell dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Invest. 93, 768775.
  • 93
    Strassmann, G., V. Patil-Koota, F. Finkelman, M. Fong and T. Kambayashi (1994) Evidence for the involvement of IL-10 in the differential deactivation of murine peritoneal macrophages by prostaglandin E2. J. Exp. Med. 180, 23652370.
  • 94
    Ayala, A., D. L. Lehman, C. D. Herdon and I. H. Chaudry (1994) Mechanism of enhanced susceptibility to sepsis following hemorrhage: IL-10 suppression of T cell response is mediated by eicosanoid-induced IL-4 release. Arch. Surg. 129, 11721178.
  • 95
    Tineke, C. T. M., K. Van Der Pouw, L. C. M. Boeije, R. J. T. Smeenk, J. Wijdenes and L. A. Aarden (1995) Prostaglandin-E2 is a potent inhibitor of human interleukin-12 production. J. Exp. Med. 181, 775779.
  • 96
    Hart, P. H., C. A. Jones, K. L. Jones, C. J. Watson, I. Santucci, L. K. Spencer and J. J. Finlay-Jones (1993) Cis-urocanic acid stimulates human peripheral blood monocyte prostaglandin E-2 production and suppresses indirectly tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. J. Immunol. 150, 45144523.
  • 97
    Araneo, B., T. Dowell, H. B. Moon and R. A. Daynes (1989) Regulation of murine lymphocyte production in vivo. UV radiation exposure depresses IL-2 and enhances IL-4 production by T cells through an IL-1 dependent mechanism. J. Immunol. 143, 17371744.
  • 98
    Betz, M. and B. Fox (1991) Prostaglandin E2 inhibits production of Thl but not Th2 lymphokines. J. Immunol. 146, 108113.
  • 99
    Kripke, M. L. (1994) Ultraviolet radiation and immunity: something new under the sun–presidential address. Cancer Res. 54, 61026105.