SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Siegenthaler, U. and J. L. Sarmiento (1993) Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the ocean. Nature 365, 119125.
  • 2
    Niell, F. X., C. Fernández, F. L. Figueroa, F. G. Figueiras, J. M. Fuentes, J. L. Pérez-Lloréns, M. J. Garcia-Sánchez, I. Hernández, J. A. Fernández, M. Espejo, J. Buela, M. C. García-Jiménez, V. Clavero and D. Jiménez (1996) Spanish Atlantic coasts. In Marine Benthic Vegetation Ecological Studies, Vol. 123 (Edited by W.Schramm and P.Nienhuis), pp. 265281. Springer-Verlag, Berlin .
  • 3
    Häder, D.-P., R. C. Worrest, H. D. Kumar and R. C. Smith (1995) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on aquatic ecosystems. Ambio 24, 174180.
  • 4
    Liming, K.. (1990) Seaweeds. Their Environment, Biogeography and Ecophysiology. Wiley, New York .
  • 5
    Hanelt, D., K. Hupperts and W. Nultsch (1992) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis and its recovery in red algae. Bot. Acta 105, 278284.
  • 6
    Hanelt, D., K. Huppertz and W. Nultsch (1993) Daily course of photosynthesis in marine macrophytes investigated in the laboratory and in the field. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 97, 3141.
  • 7
    Trebst, A.. (1991) A contact site between the two reaction center polypeptides of photosystem II is involved in photoinhibition. Z. Naturforsch. 46, 557562.
  • 8
    Krause, G. H. and E. Weis (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 313349.
  • 9
    Häder, D.-P., H. Herrmann and R. Santas (1996) Effects of solar radiation and solar radiation deprived of UV-B and total UV on photosynthetic oxygen production and pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence in the brown alga Padina pavonia. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 19, 5361.
  • 10
    Häder, D.-P., H. Herrmann, J. Schäfer and R. Santas (1996) Photosynthetic fluorescence induction and oxygen production in corrallinacean algae measured on site. Bot. Acta 109, 285291.
  • 11
    Häder, D.-P., M. Porst, H. Herrmann, J. Schäfer and R. Santas (1996) Photoinhibition in the Mediterranean green alga Hali-meda tuna Ellis et Sol measured in situ. Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 428434.
  • 12
    Häder, D.-P., H. Herrmann, J. Schäfer and R. Santas (1997) Photosynthetic fluorescence induction and oxygen production in two Mediterranean Cladophora species measured on site. Aquat. Bot. (In press).
  • 13
    Hanelt, D.. (1992) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in marine macrophytes of the South Chinese Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 82, 199206.
  • 14
    Franklin, L. A., G. G. R. Seaton, C. E. Lovelock and A. W. D. Larkum (1996) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis on a coral reef. Plant Cell Environ. 19, 825836.
  • 15
    Wood, W. F. (1989) Photoadaptativc responses of the tropical red alga Euchema striatum Schmitz (Gigartinales) to ultraviolet radiation. Aquat. Bot. 33, 4151.
  • 16
    Larkum, A. W. D. and W. F. Wood (1993) The effect of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and respiration of phytoplankton, benthic microalgae and seagrasses. Photosynth. Res. 36, 1723.
  • 17
    Dring, M. J., V. Makarov, E. Schoshina, M. Lorenz and K. Lüming (1996) Influence of ultraviolet radiation on chlorophyll fluorescence and growth in different life history stages of three species of Laminaria (Phaeophyta). Mar. Biol. 126, 183191.
  • 18
    Field, C. B., J. T. Ball and J. A. Berry (1989) Photosynthesis: principles and field techniques. In Plant Physiological Ecology (Edited by R. W.Pearcy, J.Ehleringer, H. A.Mooney and P. W.Rundel), pp. 209253. Chapman and Hall, London .
  • 19
    Schreiber, U., U. Schliwa and W. Bilger (1986) Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Photosynth. Res. 10, 5162.
  • 20
    Kolbowski, J., H. Reising and U. Schreiber (1990) Computer-controlled pulse modulation system for analysis of photoacoustic signals in the time domain. Photosynth. Res. 25, 309316.
  • 21
    Büchel, C. and C. Wilhelm (1993) In vivo analysis of slow chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics in algae: progress, problems and perspectives. Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 137148.
  • 22
    Briantais, J. M., C. Vernotte, G. H. Krause and E. Weis (1986) Chlorophyll a fluorescence of higher plants: chloroplasts and leaves. In Light Emission by Plants and Bacteria (Edited by Govindjee, J. J.Amesz and J.Fork), pp. 539583. Academic Press, New York .
  • 23
    Schreiber, U. and W. Bilger (1987) Rapid assessment of stress effects on plant leaves by chlorophyll flourescence measurements. In Plant Response to Stress (Edited by J. D.Tenhunen, F. M.Catarino, O. L.Lange and W. D.Oechel), pp. 2753. Springer-Verlag, Berlin .
  • 24
    Schreiber, U. and W. Bilger (1993) Progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research: major developments during the past years in retrospect. In Progress in Botany, Vol. 54 (Edited by U.Lüttge and H.Ziegler), pp. 151153. Springer-Verlag, Berlin .
  • 25
    Henley, W., G. Levavasseur, L. Franklin, S. T. Lindley, J. Ramus and C. B. Osmond (1991) Diurnal responses of photosynthesis and fluorescence in Ulva rotundata acclimated to sun and shade outdoor culture. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 1928.
  • 26
    Falkowski, P. G., R. Greene and Z. Kolber (1994) Light utilization and photoinhibition of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton. In Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis from Molecular Mechanisms to the Field (Edited by N. R.Baker and J. R.Bowyer), pp. 407432. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford .
  • 27
    Kroon, B., B. B. Prézelin and O. Schofield (1993) Chromatic regulation of quantum yields for photosystem II charge separation, oxygen evolution and carbon fixation in Heterocapsa pygmae (Pyrrophyta). J. Phycol. 29, 453462.
  • 28
    Schoefleld, O., B. Prézelin and G. Johnsen (1996) Wavelength dependence of the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation for two red tide dinoflagellates, Heterocapsa and Prorocentrum minimum (Pyrrophyta) implications for measuring photosynthetic rates. J. Phycol. 32, 574583.
  • 29
    Osmond, C. B. (1994) What is photoinhibition? Some insights from comparisons of shade and sun plants. In Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis from Molecular Mechanisms to the Field (Edited by N. R.Baker and J. R.Bowyer), pp. 124. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford .
  • 30
    Öquist, G., J. M. Anderson, S. McCaffery and W. S. Chow (1992) Mechanistic differences in photoinhibition of sun and shade plants. Planta 188, 422431.
  • 31
    Noctor, G., D. Rees, A. Young and P. Horton (1991) The relationship between zeaxanthin, energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, and transthylakoid pH gradient in isolated chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1057, 320330.
  • 32
    Demmig-Adams, B. and W. Adams III (1992) Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stress. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 43, 599596.
  • 33
    Critchley, C. and W. Rusell (1994) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo: the role of protein turnover in photosystem II. Physiol. Plant. 92, 188196.
  • 34
    Bose, S., S. K. Herbert and D. C. Fork (1988) Fluorescence characteristics of photoinhibition and recovery in a sun and shade species of the red algal genus Porphyra. Plant Physiol. 86, 946950.
  • 35
    Algarra, P. and P. Niell (1990) Short-term responses pigment response of Corallina elongata Ellis et Soland to light intensity. Aquat. Bot. 36, 127138.
  • 36
    Henley, W., G. Levavasseur, L. Franklin, C. B. Osmond and J. Ramus (1991) Photoacclimation and photoinhibition in Ulva rotundata as influenced by nitrogen availability. Planta 184, 235243.
  • 37
    Hanelt, D., M. J. Jaramillo, W. Nultsch, S. Senger and R. Westermeir (1994) Photoinhibition as a regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis in marine algae of Antarctica. Ser. Cient. Inst. Antarct. Chile 44, 6777.
  • 38
    Hanelt, D., J. Li and W. Nultsch (1994) Tidal dependence of photoinhibition in marine macrophytes of the South China Sea. Bot. Acta 107, 6672.
  • 39
    Adams, W. W., II and B. Demmig-Adams (1992) Operation of the xanthophyll cycle in higher plants in response to diurnal changes in incident light. Planta 186, 390398.
  • 40
    Guenther, J. E. and A. Melis (1990) The physiological significance of photosystem II heterogeneity in chloroplasts. Photosynth. Res. 23, 105109.
  • 41
    Öquist, G. and W. S. Chow (1992) On the relationship between the quanta yield of photosystem II electron transport as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantum yield of O2 dependent evolution. Photosynth. Res. 33, 5162.
  • 42
    Polne, M. and A. Gibor (1982) The effect of high intensity U.V. radiation on benthic marine algae. In The Role of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Marine Ecosystems (Edited by J.Calkins), pp. 573579. Nato Conf. Ser., Plenum, New York .
  • 43
    Wood, W. F. (1987) Effect of solar ultraviolet radiation on the kelp Eklonia radiata. Mar. Biol. 96, 143150.
  • 44
    Herrmann, H., F. Ghetti, R. Scheuerlein and D.-P. Häder (1995) Photosynthetic oxygen and fluorescence measurements in Ulva laetevirens affected by solar irradiation. J. Plant. Physiol. 145, 221227.
  • 45
    Häder, D.-P. and J. Schäfer (1994) Photosynthetic oxygen production in macroalgae and phytoplankton under solar irradiation. J. Plant Physiol. 144, 293299.
  • 46
    Häder, D.-P. and J. Schäfer (1994) In-situ measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production in the water column. Environ. Monit. Assess. 32, 259268.
  • 47
    Dring, M. J. (1988) Photocontrol of development in algae. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 39, 199207.
  • 48
    Rüdiger, W. and F. López-Figueroa (1992) Photoreceptors in algae. Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 949954.
  • 49
    Kirk J. T. O. (1994) Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. Cambridge, USA.
  • 50
    Markager, S. and K. Sand-Jensen (1994) The physiology and ecology of light-grown relationship in macroalgae. In Progress in Phycological Research, Vol. 10 (Edited by F. E.Round and D. J.Chapman), pp. 209298. Biopress Ltd., Bristol .
  • 51
    Wiencke, C., I. Bartsch, B. Bischoff, A. F. Peters and A. M. Breeman (1994) Temperature requirements and biogeography of Antarctic, Arctic and amphiequatorial seaweeds. Bot. Mar. 37, 247259.
  • 52
    Kirst, G. O. and C. Wiencke (1996) Ecophysiology of algae. J. Phycol. 31, 181199.
  • 53
    Figueroa, F. L., C. Jiménez, J. L. Pérez-Lloréns and F. X. Niell Eds. (1996) Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology, Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) Barcelona , Spain .
  • 54
    Beach, K. S. and C. M. Smith (1996) Ecophysiology of tropical rhodophytes. I. Microscale acclimation in pigmentation. J. Phycol. 32, 701710.
  • 55
    Beach, K. S. and C. M. Smith (1996) Ecophysiology of tropical rhodophytes. II Microscale acclimation in photosynthesis. J. Phycol. 32, 710718.
  • 56
    Jerlov, N. G. (1968) Optical Oceanography. Elsevier, Amsterdam .
  • 57
    Piazena, H. and D.-P. Häder (1997) Penetration of solar UV and PAR into different waters of the Baltic Sea and remote sensing of phytoplankton. In The Effects of Ozone Depletion on Aquatic Ecosystems (Edited by D.-P.Häder). Landes, Austin . (In press).
  • 58
    Figueroa, F. L., F. Jiménez-Gómez, M. L. Villarino, J. Rodríguez and F. G. Figueriras (1994) Underwater light and phytoplankton distribution during a daily cycle in the Ría of Vigo (NW Spain). Sci. Mar. 58, 119130.
  • 59
    Lüning, K. and M. J. Dring (1979) Continuous underwater light measurements near Helgoland (North Sea) and its significance for characteristic light limits in the sublittoral region. Helgoländer Wiss. Meeresunters. 32, 403424.
  • 60
    López-Figueroa, F.. (1992) Diurnal variation in pigment content in Porphyra laciniata and Chondrus crispus and its relation to the diurnal changes of underwater light quality and quantity. Mar. Ecol. 13, 285305.
  • 61
    Lüning, K. and M. J. Dring (1985) Action spectra quantum yield of photosynthesis in marine macroalgae with thin and thick thalli. Mar. Biol. 87, 119129.
  • 62
    Hannach, G.. (1991) Spectral absorption by intact blades of Porphyra abbottae (Rhodophyta): effects of environmental factors in culture. J. Phycol. 25, 522529.
  • 63
    Markager, S.. (1993) Light absorption and quantum yield for growth in five species of marine algae. J. Phycol. 29, 5463.
  • 64
    Figueroa, F., J. Aguilera and F. X. Niell (1995) Red and blue light regulation of growth and photosynthetic metabolism in Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. 30, 1118.
  • 65
    Holm-Hansen, O., D. Lubin and E. W. Helbling (1993) Ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica: inhibition of primary production. Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 567570.
  • 66
    Smith, R. C., B. B. Prézelin, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, N. P. Boucher, T. Coley, D. Karentz, S. Maclntyre, H. A. Matlick, D. Menzies, M. Ondrusek, Z. Wan and K. J. Waters (1992) Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters. Science 255, 952959.
  • 67
    Björn, L. O. and T. M. Murphy (1985) Computer calculation of solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level. Physiol. Veg. 23, 555561.
  • 68
    Björn, L. O. and A. H. Teramura (1993) Simulation of daylight ultraviolet radiation and effects of ozone depletion. In Environmental UV Photobiology (Edited by A. R.Young), pp. 4171. Plenum Press, New York .
  • 69
    Gieskes, W. C. and G. W. Kray (1990) Transmission of ultraviolet light in the Weddel sea. Report on the first measurement made in the Antarctic. Biomass Newslett. 12, 1214.
  • 70
    Baker, K. S. and K. S. Smith (1982) Spectral irradiance penetration in natural waters. In The Role of Solar Radiation in Marine Ecosystems (Edited by J.Calkins), pp. 233246. Plenum Press, New York .
  • 71
    Smith, R. C. and S. Baker (1978) Penetration of UV-B and biologically effective dose rates in natural waters. Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311323.
  • 72
    Siebeck, O. and U. Böhm (1987) Untersuchungen zur Wirkung der UV-B Strahlung auf kleine Wassertiere, p. 84. BPT Bericht Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Munich .
  • 73
    Piazena, H. and D.-P. Häder (1994) Penetration of solar UV radiation in coastal lagoons of the southern Baltic and its effect on phytoplankton communities. Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 463469.
  • 74
    Hanelt, D., C. Wiencke and W. Nultsch (1997) Influence of UV radiation on photosynthesis of Arctic macroalgae in the field. J. Photochem. Photobiol. (In press).
  • 75
    Hanelt, D.. (1996) Effects of UV-radiation on photosynthesis of Arctic macroalgae. Abstract of the Blue Light Syndrome III, p. 111.
  • 76
    Ott, H. and G. T. Amanatides (1994) Sesame 1994-1995: a European contribution to the stratospheric ozone issue, p. 16. DG XII, EC, Brussels.
  • 77
    Kirk, J. T. O. (1994) Optics of UV-B radiation in natural waters. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 43, 116.
  • 78
    Gardiner, B. G., A. R. Webb, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, I. Dirmhirn, P. Forster, D. Gillotai, K. Henricksen, P. J. M. Huber-Kirsch, P. C. Simon, T. Svenoe, P. Weihs and C. S. Zerefos (1993) European intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers. Environ. Technol. 14, 2543.
  • 79
    Seckmeyer, G., S. Thiel, M. Blumthaler, P. Fabian, S. Gerber, A. Gugg-Helminger, D.-P. Häder, M. Huber, C. Kettner, U. Köhler, P. Köpke, H. Maier, J. Schäfer, P. Suppan, E. Tamm and E. Thomalla (1994) Intercomparison of spectral-UV-radiation measurement systems. Appl. Opt. 33, 78057812.
  • 80
    Booth, C. R. and S. Madronich (1994) Radiation amplification factors: improved formulation accounts or large increases in ultraviolet radiation associated with Antarctic ozone depletion. Antarct. Res. Ser. 62, 3912.
  • 81
    Booth, C. R., T. Mestechkina and J. H. Morrow (1994) Errors in the reporting of solar radiation using moderate bandwidth radiometers: an experimental investigation. Ocean Optics XII 2258, 654663.
  • 82
    Kirk, J. T. O., B. R. Hargreaves, D. P. Morris, R. B. Coffin, B. David, D. Fredrickson, D. Karentz, D. R. S. Lean, M. P. Lesser, S. Madronich, J. H. Morrow, N. B. Nelson and N. M. Scully (1994) Measurement of UV-B radiation in two freshwater lakes: an instrument intercomparison. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 43, 7199.
  • 83
    Smith, H.. (1982) Light quality, photoperception in plant strategy. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33, 481518.
  • 84
    Smith, H.. (1993) Sensing the light environment: the functions of phytochrome family. In Photomorphogenesis in Plants, 2nd ed. (Edited by R. E.Kendrick and G. H. M.Kronenberg), pp. 377416. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands .
  • 85
    Häder, D.-P., M. Porst, H. Herrmann, J. Schafer and R. Santas (1997) Photosynthesis of the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera measured in the field under solar irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 37, 6673.
  • 86
    Wiencke, C.. (1996) Recent advances in the investigation of Antarctic macroalgae. Polar Biol. 16, 231240.
  • 87
    Klöser, H., G. Ferreyra, L. Schloss, G. Mercuri, F. Laturnus and A. Curtosi (1993) Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. J. Mar. Syst. 4, 289231.
  • 88
    Gómez, I., C. Wiencke and G. Weykman (1995) Seasonal photosynthetic characteristics of the brown alga Ascoseira mirabilis from King George Island (Antarctica). Mar. Biol. 123, 167172.
  • 89
    Gómez, I. and C. Wiencke (1996) Photosynthesis, dark respiration and pigment contents of gametophytes and sporophytes of the Antarctic brown alga Desmarestia menziessi. Bot. Mar. 39, 149157.
  • 90
    Agegian, C. R. and I. A. Abbot (1985) Deep water macroalgal communities: a comparison between Penguin Bank (Hawaii) and Johnson Atollon. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress, Vol. 5 (Edited by C. Gabriele et al), pp. 4750.
  • 91
    Littler, M. M. and D. S. Littler (1985). Deepest known plant life discovered on an uncharted seamount. Science 227, 2544.
  • 92
    Chapman, A. R. O. and J. E. Lindley (1980) Seasonal growth of Laminaria solidungulka in the Canadian High Arctic in relation to the irradiance and dissolved nutrient concentrations. Mar. Biol. 57, 15.
  • 93
    Dring, M. J. and K. Lüning (1994) Influence of spring-neap tidal changes on the light available for photosynthesis in benthic marine plants. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 104, 131137.
  • 94
    Figueroa, F. L. (1997) Underwater light signals: role of algal photoreceptors in natural environment. G. Bot. Ital. 130, 608623.
  • 95
    Lüning, K.. (1993) Environmental and internal control of seasonal growth in seaweeds. Hydrobiologia 260, 114.
  • 96
    Salles, S., J. Aguilera and F. L. Figueroa (1996) Light field in algal canopies: changes in spectral light ratios and growth of Porphyra leucosticta Thur. in Le Jol. In Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology. Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) (Edited by F. L.Figueroa, C.Jiménez and J. L.Pérez-Lloréns), pp. 2938. Barcelona, Spain .
  • 97
    Duncan, M. J. and R. E. Foreman (1980) Phytochrome-mediated stipe elongation in the kelp Nereocystis (Phaeophyceae). J. Phycol. 16, 138142.
  • 98
    Chambers, P. and D. H. N. Spence (1984) Diurnal changes in the ratio of underwater red to far-red light in relation to aquatic plant photoperiodism. J. Ecol. 72, 495503.
  • 99
    Tomasko, D. A. (1992) Variation in growth form of shoal grass (Halodule wrightii) due to changes in the spectral composition of light below a canopy of turtle grass (Thalassia testudium). Estuaries 15, 214217.
  • 100
    López-Figueroa, F., P. Lindemann, S. E. Braslavsky, K. Schaffner, H. A. W. Schneider-Poetsch and W. Rüdiger (1989) Detection of a phytochrome-like photoreceptor in macroalgae. Bot. Acta 102, 178180.
  • 101
    Kidd, D. G. and J. C. Lagarias (1990) Phytochrome from the green alga Mesotaenium caldariorum. Purification and preliminary characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 70297035.
  • 102
    Vogelmann, T. C. and L. O. Björn (1984) Light gradients and spectral regime in plant tissue with a fiber optic probe. Physiol. Plant. 60, 361368.
  • 103
    Vogelmann, T. C. (1993) Plant tissue optics. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 44, 231251.
  • 104
    Vogelmann, T. C. (1994) Light within the plant. In Photomorphogenesis in Plants, 2nd ed. (Edited by R. E.Kendrick and G. H. M.Kronenberg), pp. 491535. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands .
  • 105
    Ramus, J.. (1978) Seaweed anatomy and photosynthetic performance: the ecological significance of light guides, heterogeneous absorption and multiple scatter. J. Phycol. 14, 352362.
  • 106
    Ramus, J.. (1981) The capture and transduction of light energy. In The Biology of Seaweeds (Edited by C. S.Lobban and M. J.Wynne), pp. 458492. Blackwell, Oxford .
  • 107
    Agustí, S., S. Enriquez, H. Frost-Christensen, K. Sand-Jensen and C. M. Duirte (1994) Light harvesting among photosynthetic organisms. Ecology 8, 273279.
  • 108
    Enríquez, S., S. Agusti and C. M. Duarte (1994) Light absorption by marine macrophytes. Oecologia 98, 121129.
  • 109
    Mercado, J. M., Jiménez, C., F. X. Niell and F. L. Figueroa (1996) Comparisons of methods for measuring light absorption by algae and their application to the estimation of the package effect. In Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) (Edited by F. L. Figueroa, C. Jiménez and J. L. Pérez-Lloréns), pp. 3945. Barcelona , Spain .
  • 110
    García-Pichel, F.. (1995) A scalar irradiance fiber-optic microprobe for the measurement of ultraviolet radiation at high spatial resolution. Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 248254.
  • 111
    Lüning, K.. (1985) Meeresbotanik. G. Thieme, Stuttgart .
  • 112
    Satyendranath, S., T. Piatt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock and M. R. Lewis (1989) Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model. Deep-sea Res. 36, 431453.
  • 113
    Piazena, H. and D.-P. Häder (1995) Vertical distribution of phytoplankton in coastal waters and its detection by backscattering measurements. Photochem. Photobiol. 62, 10271034.
  • 114
    Belscher, T., A. Meinesz, C. Payri and H. Ben Moussa (1990) Apport du Satellite Spot a la connaissance des écosystémes récifaux corallineiis. La végétation marine de ľile de Moorea, Polynésie francaise. Oceanol. Acta 13, 513524.
  • 115
    Meinesz, A., T. Belscher, C.-F Bouderesque and J.-R. Lefevre (1991) Premiére évaluation des potentiatés du satellite Spot pour la cartographie des peuplements benthiques superficieles de Méditerranée occidentale. Oceanol. Acta 14, 299307.
  • 116
    Dring, M. J. (1981) Chromatic adaptation of photosynthesis in benthic marine algae: an examination of its ecological significance using a theoretical model. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 271284.
  • 117
    Brouwer, P. E. M., E. F. M. Geilen, N. J. M. Gremmen and F. van Lent (1995) Biomass, cover and zonation pattern of sublittoral macroalgae at Signy Island South Orkney Islands. Bot. Mar. 38, 259270.
  • 118
    Klöser, H., M. L. Quartino and C. Wiencke (1996) Distribution of macroalgae and macroalgal communities in gradients of physical conditions in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Hydrobiologia 333, 117.
  • 119
    Wiencke, C., J. Rahmel, U. Karsten, G. Weykman and G. O. Kirst (1993) Photosynthesis of marine macroalgae from Antarctica: light and temperature requirements. Bot. Acta 106, 7887.
  • 120
    Dubinsky, Z., P. G. Falkowski, A. F. Post and U. M. van Hes (1987) A system for measuring phytoplankton photosynthesis in a defined light field with an oxygen electrode. J Plankton Res. 9, 607612.
  • 121
    Sand-Jensen, K., N. P. Revsbech and B. B. Jorgensen (1985) Microprofiles of oxygen in epiphyte communities on submerged macrophytes. Mar. Biol. 89, 5562.
  • 122
    Revsbech, N. P. and B. B. Jørgensen (1986) Photosynthesis of benthic microflora measured with high spatial resolution by oxygen electrode microprofile method: capabilities and limitations of the method. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 749756.
  • 123
    Lassen, C., L. E. Bebout, H. W. Paerl and B. B. Jørgensen (1994) Microsensor studies of oxygen and light distribution in the green macroalga Codium fragile. J. Phycol. 30, 381386.
  • 124
    Vicent, W. F., R. W. Castenholz, M. T. Dowes and C. Howard-Williams (1993) Antarctic cyanobacteria: light, nutrients, and photosynthesis in the microbial mat environment. J. Phycol. 29, 745755.
  • 125
    Foster, R. and K. Lüning (1996) Photosynthetic response of Laminaria digitata to ultraviolet A and B radiation. In Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology, Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) (Edited by F. L. Figueroa, C. Jiménez and J. L. Pérez-Lloréns), pp. 6571. Barcelona, Spain.
  • 126
    Jones, L. W. and B. Kok (1966) Photoinhibition of chloroplast reactions. 1) Kinetics and action spectrum. Plant Physiol. 41, 10371043.
  • 127
    Farman, J. C., B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Shanklin (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica level reveal seasonal C10x/ NOx interaction. Nature 314, 207210.
  • 128
    Hanelt, D.. (1996) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in marine macroalgae. In Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology, Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) (Edited by F. L. Figueroa, C. Jiménez and J. L. Pérez-Lloréns), pp. 243248. Barcelona, Spain.
  • 129
    Björkman, O. and B. Demmig (1987) Photon yield of O2-evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170, 489504.
  • 130
    Weis, E. and A. Berry (1987) Quantum efficiency of photosystem II in relation to the energy dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim. Biophys Acta 894, 198208.
  • 131
    Hanelt, D. and W. Nultsch (1995) Field studies on photoinhibition show non correlation between oxygen and fluorescence measurements in the Arctic red alga Palmaria palmata. J. Plant Physiol. 145, 3138.
  • 132
    Baker, N. R. and J. R.Bowyer (eds.) (1994) Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis from Molecular Mechanisms to the Field. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford .
  • 133
    Wängberg, S., J.-S. Selmer, N. G. A. Ekelund and K. Gustavson (1996) UV-B effects on nordic marine ecosystem. Tema Nord 515, 145.
  • 134
    Franklin, L., G. Levavasseur, C. B. Osmond, W. J. Henley and J. Ramlis (1992) Two components of onset and recovery during photoinhibition of Ulva rotundata. Planta 186, 399408.
  • 135
    Genty, B. E., J. M. Briantais and N. R. Baker (1989) Relative quantum efficiencies of the two photosystems of leaves in photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 28, 110.
  • 136
    Dietz, K.-J., U. Schreiber and U. Heber (1985) The relationship between the redox state of QA and photosynthesis in leaves at various carbon dioxide, oxygen and light regimes. Planta 166, 219226.
  • 137
    Schreiber, U., T. Endo, H. Mi and K. Asada (1995) Quenching analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence by the saturation pulse method: particular aspects relating to the study of eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. Plant Cell Physiol. 36, 873882.
  • 138
    Schreiber, U., W. Bilger and C. Neubauer (1994) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. In Ecological Studies, Vol. 100, Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis (Edited by E. D.Schulze and M. M.Caldwell), pp. 4970. Springer Verlag, Berlin .
  • 139
    Herbert, S. K. and J. R. Waaland (1988) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in a sun and shade species of the red algal genus Porphyra. Mar. Biol. 97, 17.
  • 140
    Nultsch, W., J. Pfau and K. Huppertz (1990) Photoinhibition of photosynthetic oxygen production and its recovery in the subtidal red alga Polyneura hiliae. Bot. Acta 103, 6267.
  • 141
    Renger, G., M. Völker, H. J. Eckert, R. Fromme, S. Hohm-Veit and P. Gräber (1989) On the mechanisms of photosystem II deterioration by UV-B irradiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 97105.
  • 142
    Tevini, M., A. H. Teramura, G. Kulandaivelu, M. M. Caldwell and L. O. Björn (1989) Terrestrial plants, pp. 2537. UNEP Environmental Effects Panel Report.
  • 143
    Bhattacharjee, S. K., M. Mathur, S. S. Rane and K. A. V. David (1987) UV-sensitivity of cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans: part I-evidence for photosystem II (PSII) as a lethal target and constitutive nature of a dark-repair system against damage to PSII. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 25, 832836.
  • 144
    Bhattacharjee, S. K. and K. A. V. David (1987) UV-sensitivity of cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans: part II–a model involving photosystem (PSII) reaction centre as lethal target and herbicide binding high turnover B protein as regulator of dark repair. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 25, 837842.
  • 145
    Murphy, T. M. (1983) Membranes as targets of ultraviolet radiation. Physiol. Plant. 58, 381388.
  • 146
    Dring, M. J., A. Wagner, J. Boeskop and K. Lüning (1997) Sensitivity of intertidal and subtidal red algae to UV-A and UV-B radiation, as monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: influence of collection, depth and season and length of irradiation. Eur. J. Phycol. 31, 293302.
  • 147
    López-Figueroa, F. and F. X. Niell (1991) Photocontrol of chlorophyll and biliprotein synthesis in seaweeds: possible photoreceptors and ecological considerations. Sci. Mar. 55, 519527.
  • 148
    Ramus, J.. (1983) A physiological test of the theory of complementary chromatic adaptation. II. Brown, green and red seaweeds. J. Phycol. 19, 173178.
  • 149
    Lapointe, B. E. (1981) The effects of light and nitrogen on growth, pigment content and biochemical composition of Gracilaria foliifera v. angustissima (Gigartinales, Rhodophy-ta). J. Phycol. 17, 9095.
  • 150
    Beer, S. and I. Levy (1983) Effects of photon fluence rate and light spectrum composition on growth, photosynthesis and pigment relations in Gracilaria sp. J. Phycol. 19, 516522.
  • 151
    Algarra, P., G. de la Vifia and F. X. Niell (1991) Effects of light quality and irradiance level interaction on short-term pigment response of the red alga Corallina elongata. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 74, 2732.
  • 152
    Talarico, L.. (1996) Phycobiliproteins and phycobilisomes in red algae: adaptive responses to light. In Underwater Light and Algal Photobiology, Scientia Marina, Vol. 60 (Suppl. 1) (Edited by F. L. Figueroa, C. Jiménez and J. L. Pérez-Lloréns), pp. 205222. Barcelona, Spain.
  • 153
    Talarico, L. and A. Cortese (1993) Response of Audounella saviana (Meneghini) Woelkerling. G. Bot. Ital. 125, 109111.
  • 154
    Yu, M. H., A. N. Glazer, K. G. Spencer and J. A. West (1981) Phycoerythrins of the red alga Calithamnion. Variation in phycoerythrobilin and phycourobilin content. Plant Physiol. 68, 482488.
  • 155
    Schirmer, T., W. Bode, R. Huber, W. Sidler and H. Zuber (1985) X-ray crystallographic structure of the light-harvesting biliprotein C-phycocyanin from thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus and its resemblance to globin structure. J. Mol. Biol. 184, 257277.
  • 156
    Scheer, H., H. Formanek and S. Schneider (1982) Theoretical studies of biliprotein chromophores and related bile pigments by molecular orbital and ramachadran type calculations. Photochem. Photobiol. 36, 259272.
  • 157
    Talarico, L. and V. Kosovel (1978) Properties and ultrastructure of R-phycoerythrin from Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss (Gigirtinales, Floridophyceae). Photosynthetica 12, 369374.
  • 158
    Mörschel, E., W. Wehrmeyer and K. P. Roller (1980) Biliprotein assembly in the disc-shaped phycobilisomes of Rhodella violacea. Electron microscopical and biochemical analysis of B-phycoerythrin and B-phycoerythrin-C-phycocyanin aggregates. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 21, 319327.
  • 159
    Anderson, J. M. (1986) Photoregulation of the composition, function and structure of thylakoid membranes. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93106.
  • 160
    Ramus, J., S. Beale and D. Mauzerall (1976) Correlation of changes in the pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweed as a function of water depth. Mar. Biol. 37, 231238.
  • 161
    McDermid, K. J. (1988) Community ecology for some intertidal algae, biology and taxonomy of Hawaiian Laurencia (Rhodophyta). Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu .
  • 162
    Grumbach, K. H., H. K. Lichtenthaler and K. H. Erismann (1978) Incorporation of 14CO2 in photosynthetic pigments of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Planta 140, 3743.
  • 163
    Ripper, D. M., T. G. Owens and P. G. Falkowski (1979) Chlorophyll turnover in Skeletonema costatum, a marine plankton diatom. Plant Physiol. 64, 4954.
  • 164
    Stobart, A. and G. Hendry (1984) The turnover of chlorophyll in greening wheat leaves. Phytochemistry 23, 2730.
  • 165
    Weykman, G. and C. Wiencke (1996) Seasonal photosynthetic performance of the endemic Antarctic red alga Palmaria de-cipiens (Reinsch) Ricker. Polar Biol. 16, 357361.
  • 166
    Williams, W. P. and J. F. Allen (1987) State 1/state 2 changes in higher plants and algae. Photosynth. Res. 13, 1945.
  • 167
    Butler, W. L. (1978) Energy distribution in the photochemical apparatus of photosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 29, 345378.
  • 168
    Demmig-Adams, B., W. W. Adams, U. Heber, S. Neimains and K. Winter (1990) Inhibition of zeaxanthin formation and rapid changes in radiationless energy dissipation by difhiothreitol in spinach leaves and chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 92, 293301.
  • 169
    Pfündel, E. and W. Bilger (1994) Regulation and possible function of the violaxanthin cycle. Photosynth. Res. 42, 89109.
  • 170
    Horton, P., A. V. Ruban, D. Rees, A. A. Pascal, G. Nocotor and A. J. Young (1991) Control of the light harvesting function of chloroplast membranes by aggregation of the LHC II chlorophyll-protein complexes. FEBS Lett. 292, 14.
  • 171
    Ruban, A. V., J. Y. Andrew and P. Horton (1993) Induction of nonphotochemical energy dissipation and absorbance changes in leaves. Plant Physiol. 102, 741750.
  • 172
    Owens, T. G., J. C. Gallagher and R. S. Alberte (1987) Photosynthetic light harvesting function of violaxanthin in Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae). J. Phycol. 23, 7985.
  • 173
    Schubert, H., B. M. A. Kroon and H. C. P. Matthijs (1994) In vivo manipulation of the xanthophyll cycle and the role of the zeaxanthin cycle in the photoprotection against photodamage in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 72677272.
  • 174
    Franklin, L. A. (1994) The effects of temperature acclimation on the photoinhibitory responses of Ulva rotundata Blid. Planta 192, 324331.
  • 175
    Grevby, C.. (1996) Organisation of the light harvesting complex in fucoxanthin containing algae. Ph.D. Thesis, Göteborg University, Sweden .
  • 176
    Hager, A.. (1980) The reversible, light induced conversion of xanthophylls in the chloroplasts. In Pigments in Plants (Edited by F. C.Czygan), p. 57. Fischer, Stuttgart .
  • 177
    Uhrmacher, S., D. Hanelt and W. Nultsch (1995) Zeaxanthin content and the degree of photoinhibition are lineraly correlated in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma. Mar. Biol. 123, 159165.
  • 178
    Osmond, C. B., J. Ramuis, G. Levavasseur, L. A. Franklin and W. J. Henley (1993) Fluorescence quenching during photosynthesis and photoinhibition of Ulva rotundata Blid. Planta 190, 97106.
  • 179
    Hanelt, D. and W. Nultsch (1991) The role of chromatophore arrangement in protecting the chromatophores of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma against photodamage. J. Plant Physiol. 138, 470475.
  • 180
    Hanelt, D. and W. Nultsch (1990) Daily changes of the phaeoplasts arrangement in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma as studied in field experiments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 61, 273279.
  • 181
    Aro, E. M., I. Virgin and B. Andersson (1993) Photoinhibition of photosystem II. Inactivation, protein damage and turnover. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1143, 113134.
  • 182
    Franklin, L., C. Schäfer and C. B. Osmond (1996b) Degradation of the DI protein in Ulva during photoinhibition in the lab and in the field, p. 12. Abstract from the 1st European Phycological Congress.
  • 183
    Karentz, D.. (1994) Ultraviolet tolerance mechanisms in Antarctic marine organisms. In Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects. Antarctic Research Ser., Vol. 62, pp. 93110.
  • 184
    Caldwell, M. M., R. Robberecht and S. D. Fint (1983) Internal filters: prospects for UV-acclimation in higher plants. Physiol. Plant. 58, 445450.
  • 185
    Karentz, D., F. S. McEuen, K. M. Land and W. C. Dunlap (1991) A survey of mycosporine-like amino acid compounds in Antarctic marine organisms: potential protection from ultraviolet exposure. Mar. Biol. 108, 157166.
  • 186
    Logan, A., K. Halccrow and T. Tornascik (1979) UV-ex-citation fluorescence in polyp tissue and certain scleractinian corals from Barbados and Bermuda. Bull. Mar. Sci. 46, 807813.