Abstract— We investigated the photoinactivation of virus infectivity by hypocrellin A and its mechanism. The titers of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), both of which are enveloped viruses, were reduced upon illumination with hypocrellin A in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas canine parvovirus, a nonenveloped virus, was not killed. The removal of oxygen or addition of sodium azide or bT-carotene both inhibited VSV inactivation. Mannitol and superoxide dismutase had no effect on VSV inactivation. These results indicate that singlet oxygen was involved in the process of VSV inactivation. Of the three major VSV membrane proteins, peripheral membrane protein M was most damaged by the hypocrellin A phototreatment.
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