This invited paper is part of the Symposium-in-Print: Photoreceptors and Signal Transduction.
Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Studies on Spectral Tuning Mechanisms of Visual Pigments and Other Photoactive Proteins†
Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology
Photochemistry and Photobiology
Volume 84, Issue 4, pages 845–854, July/August 2008
How to Cite
Altun, A., Yokoyama, S. and Morokuma, K. (2008), Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Studies on Spectral Tuning Mechanisms of Visual Pigments and Other Photoactive Proteins. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 84: 845–854. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00308.x
- Issue published online: 9 JUL 2008
- Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008
- Received 18 October 2007, accepted 13 December 2007
The protein environments surrounding the retinal tune electronic absorption maximum from 350 to 630 nm. Hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods can be used in calculating excitation energies of retinal in its native protein environments and in studying the molecular basis of spectral tuning. We hereby review recent QM/MM results on the phototransduction of bovine rhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, sensory rhodopsin II, nonretinal photoactive yellow protein and their mutants.