SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    WHO (2002) Global Solar UV Index: A Practical Guide. World Health Organisation (WHO), World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNRP), Geneva.
  • 2
    WMO (2007) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006. World Meteorological Organisation Global Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 50, Geneva.
  • 3
    UNEP (2007) Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2006 assessment. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 201332.
  • 4
    UNEP (2006) Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2005. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 5, 1324 (DOI: DOI: 10.1039/b515670 j).
  • 5
    Kerr, J. B., G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. A. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar and J. Verdebout (2003) Surface ultraviolet radiation: Past and future. In Chapter 5 of WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002 (Edited by A.-L.Ajavon, N. D. L.Albritton, G.Megie and R. T.Watson). World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 47, Geneva.
  • 6
    Lee-Taylor, J. and S. Madronich (2007) Climatology of UV-A, UV-B, and Erythemal Radiation at the Earth’s Surface, 1979-2000. NCAR Technical Note TN-474+ STR, pp. 52. NCAR, Boulder, CO.
  • 7
    Liley, J. B. and R. L. McKenzie (2006) Where on Earth has the highest UV? In UV Radiation and its Effects: An Update (Edited by R. L.McKenzie and E.Davis for NIWA and RSNZ), pp. 3637. Royal Society of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. Available at: http://www.niwascience.co.nz/rc/atmos/uvconference. Accessed on 10 June 2008.
  • 8
    McKenzie, R., D. Smale, G. Bodeker and H. Claude (2003) Ozone profile differences between Europe and New Zealand: Effects on surface UV irradiance and its estimation from satellite sensors. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4179 (DOI: DOI: 4110.1029/2002JD002770).
  • 9
    McKenzie, R. L., G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, J. B. Kerr and S. Madronich (2001) Satellite retrievals of erythemal UV dose compared with ground-based measurements at northern and southern midlatitudes. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2405124062.
  • 10
    Grant, W. B., C. F. Garland and M. F. Holick (2005) Comparisons of estimated economic burdens due to insufficient solar ultraviolet irradiance and vitamin D and excess solar UV irradiance for the United States. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 12761286.
  • 11
    Berwick, M. and D. Kesler (2005) Ultraviolet radiation exposure, vitamin D, and cancer. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 12611266.
  • 12
    Godar, D. E. (2005) UV doses worldwide. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 736749.
  • 13
    Gandini, S., F. Sera, M. S. Cattaruzza, P. Pasquini, O. Picconi, P. Boyle and C. F. Melchi (2005) Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur. J. Cancer 41, 4560.
  • 14
    Livesey, J., P. Elder, J. Ellis, R. McKenzie, B. Liley and C. Florkowski (2007) Seasonal variation in vitamin D levels in the Canterbury population in relation to available UV radiation. NZ Med. J. 120(1262): http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1262/2733/ .
  • 15
    Brustad, M., K. Edvardsen, T. Wilsgaard, O. Engelsen, L. Aksnesc and E. Lunda (2007) Seasonality of UV-radiation and vitamin D status at 69 degrees north. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 903908.
  • 16
    Davies, P., C. Bates, T. Cole, A. Prentice and P. Clarke (1999) Vitamin D: Seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 195198.
  • 17
    Moan, J., A. C. Porojnicu, A. Dahlback and R. B. Setlow (2008) Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 668673.
  • 18
    Holick, M. F. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 266281.
  • 19
    Gorham, E. D., C. F. Garland, F. C. Garland, W. B. Grant, S. B. Mohr, M. Lipkin, H. L. Newmark, E. Giovannucci, M. Wei and M. F. Holick (2007) Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention. A quantitative meta analysis. Am. J. Prev. Med. 32, 210216.
  • 20
    Vieth, R. (2006) Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: Critical need for revision upwards. J. Nutr. 136, 11171122.
  • 21
    Gillie, O. (2006) A new government policy is needed for sunlight and vitamin D. Br. J. Dermatol. 154, 10521061.
  • 22
    Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., E. Giovannucci, W. C. Willett, T. Dietrich and B. Dawson-Hughes (2006) Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 84, 1828.
  • 23
    Young, A. R. and S. L. Walker (2005) UV radiation, vitamin D and human health: An unfolding controversy introduction. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 12431245.
  • 24
    Cannell, J., B. Hollis, M. Zasloff and R. Heaney (2008) Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 9, 112.
  • 25
    McKinlay, A. F. and B. L. Diffey (1987) A reference action spectrum for ultra-violet induced erythema in human skin. In Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations (Edited by W. F.Passchier and B. F. M.Bosnajakovic), pp. 8387. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • 26
    Bouillon, R., J. Eisman, M. Garabedian, M. Holick, J. Kleinschmidt, T. Suda, I. Terenetskaya and A. Webb (2006) Action Spectrum for the Production of Previtamin D3 in Human Skin. UDC: 612.014.481-06, CIE, Vienna.
  • 27
    Kimlin, M. G., W. J. Olds and M. R. Moore (2007) Location and vitamin D synthesis: Is the hypothesis validated by geophysical data? J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 234239.
  • 28
    Madronich, S. and S. Flocke (1995) Theoretical estimation of biologically effective UV radiation at the earth’s surface In Solar Ultraviolet Radiation (Edited by C. S.Zerefos and A. F.Bais), pp. 2348. NATO Series I: Advanced Study Institute. Springer, Berlin.
  • 29
    McKenzie, R., D. Smale and M. Kotkamp (2004) Relationship between UVB and erythemally weighted radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 252256.
  • 30
    McKenzie, R. L. (2007) UV radiation climatology and trends (Invited presentation). In One Century of UV Radiation Research (Edited by J.Grobner), pp. 1314. PMOD/WRC, Davos, Switzerland.
  • 31
    MacLaughlin, J. A., R. R. Anderson and M. F. Holick (1982) Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin. Science 216, 10011003.
  • 32
    Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1988) The validity and practicality of Sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch. Dermatol. 124, 869871.
  • 33
    Nielsen, K. P., L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes and J. Moan (2006) The importance of the depth distribution of melanin in skin for DNA protection and other photobiological processes. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 82, 194198.
  • 34
    Armas, L. A. G., S. Dowell, M. A. RN, S. Duthuluru, C. Huerter, B. W. Hollis, R. Lund and R. P. Heaney (2007) Ultraviolet-B radiation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: The effect of UVB dose and skin color. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57, 588593.
  • 35
    Chel, V. G. M., M. E. Ooms, C. Popp-Snijders, S. Pavel, A. A. Schothorst, C. C. E. Meulemans and P. Lips (1998) Ultraviolet irradiation corrects vitamin D deficiency and suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. J. Bone Miner. Res. 13, 12381242.
  • 36
    Vieth, R., H. Bischoff-Ferrari, B. J. Boucher, B. Dawson-Hughes, C. F. Garland, R. P. Heaney, M. F. Holick, B. W. Hollis, C. Lamberg-Allardt, J. J. McGrath, A. W. Norman, Robert. Scragg, S. J. Whiting, W. C. Willett and A. Zittermann (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85, 649650.
  • 37
    Wolpowitz, D. and B. A. Gilchrest (2006) Clarifying the vitamin D controversy: The health benefits of supplementation by diet versus sunshine. In Skin Aging, Edited by B. A.Gilchrist and J.Krutmann), pp. 81102. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.
  • 38
    Holick, M. F. (2002) Vitamin D: The underappreciated D-lightful hormone that is important for skeletal and cellular health. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diab. 8, 8798.
  • 39
    British Red Cross (2002) First Aid Manual: The Authorised Manual of St John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association of the British Red Cross. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • 40
    Matsuoka, L. Y., J. Wortsman, J. G. Haddad and B. W. Hollis (1989) In vivo threshold for cutaneous synthesis of vitamin-D3. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 114, 301305.
  • 41
    Blumthaler, M., B. Schallhart, M. Schwarzmann, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, M. Kotkamp and H. Shiona (2008) Spectral UV measurements of global irradiance, solar radiance, and actinic fluxes in New Zealand: Inter comparison between instruments and model calculations. J. Oceanic Atmos. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 945958.
  • 42
    Jacques, S. L. (1998) Skin Optics. Available at http://omlc.bme.ogi.edu/news/jan98/skinoptics.html. Accessed on 10 June 2008.
  • 43
    Meinhardt, M., R. Krebs, A. Anders, U. Heinrich and H. Tronnier (2008) Effect of UV adaptation on the UV absorption spectra of human skin in vivo. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 24, 7682.
  • 44
    Meinhardt, M., R. Krebs, A. Anders and U. H. Tronnier (2008) Absorption spectra of human skin in vivo in the ultraviolet wavelength range. Photochem. Photobiol. doi: DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00398.x (In press).
  • 45
    Kaxiras, E., A. Tsolakidis, G. Zonios and S. Meng (2006) Structural model of eumelanin. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 14.
  • 46
    Tran, M. L., B. J. Powell and P. Meredith (2006) Chemical and structural disorder in eumelanins: A possible explanation for broadband absorption. Biophys. J. 90, 743752.
  • 47
    Damiani, E., L. Rosati, R. Castagna, P. Carloni and L. Greci (2006) Changes in ultraviolet absorbance and hence in protective efficacy against lipid peroxidation of organic sunscreens after UVA irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 82, 204213.
  • 48
    Diffey, B. L., P. R. Tanner, P. J. Matts and J. F. Nash (2000) In vitro assessment of the broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection of sunscreen products. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 43, 10241035.
  • 49
    Sayre, R. M. and J. C. Dowdy (2007) Darkness at noon: Sunscreens and vitamin D3. Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 459463.
  • 50
    Meanwell, E. F. and B. Diffey (1989) Reciprocity of ultraviolet erythema in human skin. Photodermatology 6, 146148.
  • 51
    Webb, A. R., L. Kline and M. F. Holick (1988) Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: Exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 67, 373378.
  • 52
    Holick, M. F., X. Q. Tian and M. Allen (1995) Evolutionary importance for the membrane enhancement of the production of vitamin D3 in the skin of poikilothermic animals. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 31243126.
  • 53
    Hollis, B. W. (2005) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: Implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D1. J. Nutr. 135, 317322.
  • 54
    Wright, C. Y., A. I. Reeder, G. E. Bodeker, A. Gray and B. Cox (2007) Solar UVR exposure, concurrent activities and sun-protective practices among primary schoolchildren. Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 749758.
  • 55
    Knuschke, P., I. Unverricht, G. Ott and M. Jansen (2007) Personenbezogene Messung der UV-Exposition von Arbeitnehmern im Freien. Forschung Projekt F 1777, pp. 195. Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedian (BAUA), Dortmund/Berlin/Dresden.
  • 56
    Zittermann, A. (2003) Vitamin D in preventive medicine: Are we ignoring the evidence? Br. J. Nutr. 89, 552572 (DOI: DOI: 510.1079/BJN2003837).
  • 57
    Holick, M. F. and M. Jenkins (2003) The UV Advantage. I Books, New York.
  • 58
    ANZS Standards Association of Australia and New Zealand (2002) Solaria for Cosmetic Purposes, pp. 14. AS/NZS 2635:2002, Wellington.