Patterns of Persistent DNA Damage Associated with Sun Exposure and the Glutathione S-transferase M1 Genotype in Melanoma Patients


Corresponding author email: (Mark L. Steinberg)


Solar radiation can lead to changes affecting DNA metabolism resulting in loss of DNA integrity. Skin specimens obtained from melanoma patients treated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were used to study patterns of DNA fragmentation using the comet assay and levels of deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using real-time PCR. Skin specimens were classified according to the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype (either wild type [WT] or null) and patient sunburn history. GSTM1 null individuals with a sunburn history showed increased levels of both DNA fragmentation by comet assays and mtDNA deletions relative to GSTM1 WT patients with little or no sunburn history. Microarray analyses identified a number of genes whose expression was upregulated ≥5-fold in cells from GSTM1-null patients or from those reporting histories of sunburn. These genes encoded small molecule transporters, various growth factor/chemokine receptors, transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Of 17 genes directly involved in DNA repair, three DNA ligases were highly upregulated while the RAD23 UV excision repair gene and the Growth Arrest and DNA Damage gene (GADD45) were downregulated. These findings support the idea that exposure to solar radiation early in life may induce long-term cellular changes that lead to persistent DNA damage and altered patterns of gene expression.