The modifications induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) on fluorescent proteins (FPs) may have important implications for live cell fluorescence imaging. Using quantitative γ-radiolysis, we have studied the ROS-induced biochemical and photophysical perturbations on recombinant cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). After oxidation by the ˙OH radical, the protein displays a modified RP-HPLC elution profile, while the CFP fluorescence undergoes pronounced decreases in intensity and lifetime, without changes in its excitation and emission spectra. Meanwhile, the Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between the single W57 and the chromophore remains unperturbed. These results rule out a direct oxidation of the CFP chromophore and of W57 as well as major changes in the protein 3D structure, but show that new fluorescent forms associated to a higher level of dynamic quenching have been generated. Thus, strict in situ controls are required when CFP is to be used for FRET studies in situations of oxidative activity, or under strong illumination.