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    Wilhelm, S. W., M. G. Weinbauer, C. A. Suttle, R. J. Pledger and D. L. Mitchell (1998) Measurements of DNA damage and photoreactivation imply that most viruses in marine surface waters are infective. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 14, 215222.
  • 109
    Crowley, D. J., I. Boubriak, B. R. Berquist, M. Clark, E. Richard, L. Sullivan, S. DasSarma and S. McCready (2006) The uvrA, uvrB and uvrC genes are required for repair of ultraviolet light induced DNA photoproducts in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. Saline Syst. 2, 11.
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    McCready, S. (1996) The repair of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage in the halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacterium cutirubrum, Halobacterium halobium and Haloferax volcanii. Mutat. Res. 364, 2532.
  • 111
    McCready, S. and L. Marcello (2003) Repair of UV damage in Halobacterium salinarum. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31, 694698.
  • 112
    Boelen, P., M. K. De Boer, G. W. Kraay, M. J. Veldhuis and A. G. Buma (2000) UVBR induced DNA damage in natural marine picoplankton assemblages in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 193, 19.
  • 113
    Boelen, P., A. F. Post, M. J. Veldhuis and A. G. Buma (2002) Diel patterns of UVBR-induced DNA damage in picoplankton size fractions from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Microb. Ecol. 44, 164174.
  • 114
    Jeffrey, W. H., R. V. Miller and D. L. Mitchell (1997) Detection of ultraviolet radiation induced DNA damage in microbial communities of the Gerlache Strait. Antarct. J. US 32, 8587.
  • 115
    Jeffrey, W. H., R. J. Pledger, P. Aas, S. Hager, R. B. Coffin, R. Von Haven and D. L. Mitchell (1996) Diel and depth profiles of DNA photodamage in bacterioplankton exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet radiation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 137, 283291.
  • 116
    Joux, F., W. H. Jeffrey, P. Lebaron and D. L. Mitchell (1999) Marine bacterial isolates display diverse responses to UV-B radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 38203827.
  • 117
    Lakhanisky, T., B. Hendrickx, R. F. Mouton and J. J. Cornelis (1979) A serological study of removal of UV-induced photoproducts in the DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis GL: Influence of caffeine, quinacrine and chloroquine. Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 851853.
  • 118
    Lyons, M. M., P. Aas, J. D. Pakulski, L. Van Wassbergen, D. L. Mitchell, R. V. Miller and W. H. Jeffrey (1998) Ultraviolet radiation induced DNA damage in coral reef microbial communities. Mar. Biol. 14, 215222.
  • 119
    Meador, J., W. H. Jeffrey, J. P. Kase, J. D. Pakulski, S. Chiarello and D. L. Mitchell (2002) Seasonal fluctuation of DNA photodamage in marine plankton assemblages at Palmer Station, Antarctica. Photochem. Photobiol. 75, 266271.
  • 120
    Meador, J. A., A. J. Baldwin, P. Catala, W. H. Jeffrey, F. Joux, J. A. Moss, J. Dean Pakulski, R. Stevens and D. L. Mitchell (2009) Sunlight-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected along a latitudinal gradient from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. Photochem. Photobiol. 85, 412420.
  • 121
    Okaichi, K., T. Mori, M. Ihara and T. Ohnishi (1995) Unique DNA repair property of an ultraviolet-sensitive (radC) mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum. Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 281284.
  • 122
    Tang, M. S., J. Hrncir, D. Mitchell, J. Ross and J. Clarkson (1986) The relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in Escherichia coli cells. Mutat. Res. 161, 917.
  • 123
    Visser, P. M., E. Snelder, A. J. Kop, P. Boelen, A. G. J. Buma and F. C. Van Duyl (1999) Effects of UV radiation on DNA photodamage and production in bacterioplankton in the coastal Caribbean Sea. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 20, 4958.
  • 124
    Koehler, D. R., J. Courcelle and P. C. Hanawalt (1996) Kinetics of pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct repair in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178, 13471350.
  • 125
    Macaluso, A. L., D. L. Mitchell and R. W. Sanders (2009) Direct effects of UV-B radiation on the freshwater heterotrophic nanoflagellate Paraphysomonas sp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75, 45254530.
  • 126
    Sanders, R. W., A. L. Macaluso, T. J. Sardina and D. L. Mitchell (2006) Photoreactivation in two freshwater ciliates: Differential responses to variations in UV-B flux and temperature. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 40, 283292.
  • 127
    Baker, T. I., R. J. Radloff, C. E. Cords, S. R. Engel and D. L. Mitchell (1991) The induction and repair of (6-4) photoproducts in Neurospora crassa. Mutat. Res. 255, 211218.
  • 128
    Davey, S., M. L. Nass, J. V. Ferrer, K. Sidik, A. Eisenberger, D. L. Mitchell and G. A. Freyer (1997) The fission yeast UVDR DNA repair pathway is inducible. Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 10021008.
  • 129
    McCready, S. (1994) Repair of 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat. Res. 315, 261273.
  • 130
    McCready, S., A. M. Carr and A. R. Lehmann (1993) Repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol. Microbiol. 10, 885890.
  • 131
    McCready, S. and B. Cox (1993) Repair of 6-4 photoproducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat. Res. 293, 233240.
  • 132
    Reed, S. H., S. Boiteux and R. Waters (1996) UV-induced endonuclease III-sensitive sites at the mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repaired by nucleotide excision repair: RAD7 and RAD16 are not required for their removal from HML alpha. Mol. Gen. Genet. 250, 505514.
  • 133
    Shimura, M., Y. Ito, C. Ishii, H. Yajima, H. Linden, T. Harashima, A. Yasui and H. Inoue (1999) Characterization of a Neurospora crassa photolyase-deficient mutant generated by repeat induced point mutation of the phr gene. Fungal Genet. Biol. 28, 1220.
  • 134
    Ballare, C. L., A. L. Scopel, A. E. Stapleton and M. J. Yanovsky (1996) Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects seedling emergence, DNA integrity, plant morphology, growth rate, and attractiveness to herbivore insects in Datura ferox. Plant Physiol. 112, 161170.
  • 135
    Boelen, P., M. J. Veldhuis and A. G. Buma (2001) Accumulation and repair of UVBR mediated DNA damage in marine tropical plankton subjected to mixed and simulated non-mixed conditions. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 24, 265274.
  • 136
    Britt, A. B., J. J. Chen, D. Wykoff and D. Mitchell (1993) A UV-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis defective in the repair of pyrimidine-pyrimidinone(6-4) dimers. Science 261, 15711574.
  • 137
    Buma, A. G., E. W. Helbling, M. K. De Boer and V. E. Villafane (2001) Patterns of DNA damage and photoinhibition in temperate South-Atlantic picophytoplankton exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 62, 918.
  • 138
    Buma, A. G., E. J. Van Hannen, M. J. Veldhuis, L. Roza and W. W. C. Gieskes (1995) Monitoring ultraviolet-D-induced DNA damage in individual diatom cells by immunofluorescent thymine dimer detection. J. Phycol. 31, 314321.
  • 139
    Buma, A. G. J., M. K. De Boer and P. Boelen (2001) Depth distributions of DNA damage in Antarctic marine phyto- and bacterioplankton exposed to summertime UV radiation. J. Phycol. 37, 200208.
  • 140
    Buma, A. G. J., A. H. Engelen and W. W. C. Gieskes (1997) Wavelength-dependent induction of thymine dimers and growth rate reduction in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 153, 9197.
  • 141
    Buma, A. G. J., E. J. VanHannen, M. J. W. Veldhuis and W. W. C. Gieskes (1996) UV-B induces DNA damage and DNA synthesis delay in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. Sci. Mar. 60, 101106.
  • 142
    Buma, A. G. J., S. W. Wright, R. Van Den Enden, W. H. Van De Poll and A. T. Davidson (2006) PAR acclimation and UVBR-induced DNA damage in Antarctic marine microalgae. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 315, 3342.
  • 143
    Chen, J. J., D. L. Mitchell and A. B. Britt (1994) A light-dependent pathway for the elimination of UV-induced pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone photoproducts in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 6, 13111317.
  • 144
    Fidantsef, A. L., D. L. Mitchell and A. B. Britt (2000) The Arabidopsis UVH1 gene is a homolog of the yeast repair endonuclease RAD1. Plant Physiol. 124, 579586.
  • 145
    Hada, M., K. Hino, G. Buchholz, J. Goss, E. Wellmann and M. Shin (2000) Assay of DNA photolyase activity in spinach leaves in relation to cell compartmentation—Evidence for lack of DNA photolyase in chloroplasts. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64, 12881291.
  • 146
    Jiang, C. Z., J. Yee, D. L. Mitchell and A. B. Britt (1997) Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 94, 74417445.
  • 147
    Karentz, D., I. E. Cleaver and D. L. Mitchell (1991) Ultraviolet photobiology of Antarctic Bacillariphyceae (diatoms): Molecular and biological responses to UV-B radiation. J. Phycol. 27, 326341.
  • 148
    Liu, Z., S. W. Hong, M. Escobar, E. Vierling, D. L. Mitchell, D. W. Mount and J. D. Hall (2003) Arabidopsis UVH6, a homolog of human XPD and yeast RAD3 DNA repair genes, functions in DNA repair and is essential for plant growth. Plant Physiol. 132, 14051414.
  • 149
    Liu, Z., G. S. Hossain, M. A. Islas-Osuna, D. L. Mitchell and D. W. Mount (2000) Repair of UV damage in plants by nucleotide excision repair: Arabidopsis UVH1 DNA repair gene is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1. Plant J. 21, 519528.
  • 150
    Lud, D., A. G. J. Buma, W. Van De Poll, T. C. W. Moerdijk and A. H. L. Huiskes (2001) DNA damage and photosynthetic performance in the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa ssp antarctica (Chlorophyta) under manipulated UV-B radiation. J. Phycol. 37, 459467.
  • 151
    Pakker, H., R. S. T. Martins, P. Boelen, A. G. J. Buma, O. Nikaido and A. M. Breeman (2000) Effects of temperature on the photoreactivation of ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). J. Phycol. 36, 334341.
  • 152
    Tanaka, A., A. Sakamoto, Y. Ishigaki, O. Nikaido, G. Sun, Y. Hase, N. Shikazono, S. Tano and H. Watanabe (2002) An ultraviolet-B-resistant mutant with enhanced DNA repair in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 129, 6471.
  • 153
    Van De Poll, W. H., A. Eggert, A. G. J. Buma and A. M. Breeman (2001) Effects of UV-B-induced DNA damage and photoinhibition on growth of temperate marine red macrophytes: Habitat-related differences in UV-B tolerance. J. Phycol. 37, 3037.
  • 154
    Van De Poll, W. H., D. Hanelt, K. Hoyer, A. G. Buma and A. M. Breeman (2002) Ultraviolet-B-induced cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in Arctic marine macrophytes. Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 493500.
  • 155
    Li, S., M. Paulsson and L. O. Bjorn (2002) Temperature-dependent formation and photorepair of DNA damage induced by UV-B radiation in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 66, 6772.
  • 156
    Hartman, P. S., J. Hevelone, V. Dwarakanath and D. L. Mitchell (1989) Excision repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 122, 379385.
  • 157
    Hartman, P. S., V. J. Simpson, T. Johnson and D. Mitchell (1988) Radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in Caenorhabditis elegans strains with different mean life spans. Mutat. Res. 208, 7782.
  • 158
    Karentz, D., I. Bosch and D. M. Mitchell (2004) Limited effects of Antarctic ozone depletion on sea urchin development. Mar. Biol. 145, 277292.
  • 159
    Lesser, M. P., V. A. Kruse and T. M. Barry (2003) Exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes apoptosis in developing sea urchin embryos. J. Exp. Biol. 206, 40974103.
  • 160
    Connelly, S. J., R. E. Moeller, G. Sanchez and D. L. Mitchell (2009) Temperature effects on survival and DNA repair in four freshwater cladoceran Daphnia species exposed to UV radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 85, 144152.
  • 161
    Kim, G. B., R. F. Lee and D. L. Mitchell (2000) Damage of grass shrimp (Palomonetes pugio) embryo DNA by summer sunlight and rapid DNA repair in the dark. Mar. Biol. 137, 675682.
  • 162
    MacFadyen, E. J., C. E. Williamson, G. Grad, M. Lowery, W. H. Jeffrey and D. Mitchell (2004) Molecular response to climate change: Temperature dependence of UV-induced DNA damage and repair in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulicaria. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10, 408416.
  • 163
    Goukassian, D., F. Gad, M. Yaar, M. S. Eller, U. S. Nehal and B. A. Gilchrest (2000) Mechanisms and implications of the age-associated decrease in DNA repair capacity. FASEB J. 14, 13251334.
  • 164
    Mitchell, D. L., J. M. Clarkson, C. C. Chao and B. S. Rosenstein (1986) Repair of cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in ICR 2A frog cells. Photochem. Photobiol. 43, 595597.
  • 165
    Malloy, K. D., M. A. Holman, D. Mitchell and H. W. Detrich III (1997) Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in Antarctic zooplankton. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 94, 12581263.
  • 166
    Meador, J. A., R. B. Walter and D. L. Mitchell (2000) Induction, distribution and repair of UV photodamage in the platyfish, Xiphophorus signum. Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 260266.
  • 167
    Mitchell, D. L., T. Adams-Deutsch and M. H. Olson (2009) Dose dependence of DNA repair in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae exposed to UV-B radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 7581.
  • 168
    Mitchell, D. L., R. S. Nairn, D. A. Johnston, M. Byrom, S. Kazianis and R. B. Walter (2004) Decreased levels of (6-4) photoproduct excision repair in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus. Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 447452.
  • 169
    Mitchell, D. L., J. T. Scoggins and D. C. Morizot (1993) DNA repair in the variable platyfish (Xiphophorus variatus) irradiated in vivo with ultraviolet B light. Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 455459.
  • 170
    Moredock, S., R. S. Nairn, D. A. Johnston, M. Byrom, G. Heaton, M. Lowery and D. L. Mitchell (2003) Mechanisms underlying DNA damage resistance in a Xiphophorus melanoma cell line. Carcinogenesis 24, 19671975.
  • 171
    Olson, M. H., T. Adams-Deutsch, K. J. Cassels, A. E. Oliver and D. L. Mitchell (2008) Patterns of ultraviolet radiation exposure in bluegill nests over the course of the spawning season. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 137, 14461454.
  • 172
    Olson, M. H., M. R. Colip, J. S. Gerlach and D. L. Mitchell (2006) Quantifying ultraviolet radiation mortality risk in bluegill larvae: Effects of nest location. Ecol. Appl. 16, 328338.
  • 173
    Olson, M. H. and D. L. Mitchell (2006) Interspecific variation in UV defense mechanisms among temperate freshwater fishes. Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 606610.
  • 174
    Mitchell, D. L., L. A. Applegate, R. S. Nairn and R. D. Ley (1990) Photoreactivation of cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in the epidermis of the marsupial, Monodelphis domestica. Photochem. Photobiol. 51, 653658.
  • 175
    Berton, T. R., C. J. Conti, D. L. Mitchell, C. M. Aldaz, R. A. Lubet and S. M. Fischer (1998) The effect of vitamin E acetate on ultraviolet-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Mol. Carcinog. 23, 175184.
  • 176
    Berton, T. R., D. L. Mitchell, S. M. Fischer and M. F. Locniskar (1997) Epidermal proliferation but not quantity of DNA photodamage is correlated with UV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 109, 340347.
  • 177
    Berton, T. R., D. L. Mitchell, R. Guo and D. G. Johnson (2005) Regulation of epidermal apoptosis and DNA repair by E2F1 in response to ultraviolet B radiation. Oncogene 24, 24492460.
  • 178
    Busch, D. B., H. Van Vuuren, J. De Wit, A. Collins, M. Z. Zdzienicka, D. L. Mitchell, K. W. Brookman, M. Stefanini, R. Riboni, L. H. Thompson, R. B. Albert, A. J. Van Gool and J. Hoeijmakers (1997) Phenotypic heterogeneity in nucleotide excision repair mutants of rodent complementation groups 1 and 4. Mutat. Res. 383, 91106.
  • 179
    Clarkson, J. M. and D. L. Mitchell (1983) The effect of various inhibitors of DNA synthesis on the repair of DNA photoproducts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 740, 355361.
  • 180
    Itoh, T., T. Shiomi, N. Shiomi, Y. Harada, M. Wakasugi, T. Matsunaga, O. Nikaido, E. C. Friedberg and M. Yamaizumi (1996) Rodent complementation group 8 (ERCC8) corresponds to Cockayne syndrome complementation group A. Mutat. Res. 362, 167174.
  • 181
    Jans, J., W. Schul, Y. G. Sert, Y. Rijksen, H. Rebel, A. P. Eker, S. Nakajima, H. Van Steeg, F. R. De Gruijl, A. Yasui, J. H. Hoeijmakers and G. T. Van Der Horst (2005) Powerful skin cancer protection by a CPD-photolyase transgene. Curr. Biol. 15, 105115.
  • 182
    Lange, S. S., D. L. Mitchell and K. M. Vasquez (2008) High mobility group protein B1 enhances DNA repair and chromatin modification after DNA damage. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1032010325.
  • 183
    Li, G., V. C. Ho, D. L. Mitchell, M. J. Trotter and V. A. Tron (1997) Differentiation-dependent p53 regulation of nucleotide excision repair in keratinocytes. Am. J. Pathol. 150, 14571464.
  • 184
    Li, G., D. L. Mitchell, V. C. Ho, J. C. Reed and V. A. Tron (1996) Decreased DNA repair but normal apoptosis in ultraviolet-irradiated skin of p53-transgenic mice. Am. J. Pathol. 148, 11131123.
  • 185
    Liu, P. K. and G. S. Hsu (1990) On the DNA polymerase-a mutant: Immunofluorescence assay of UV-induced thymidine dimers in Aphr-4-2 cells. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 16, 4957.
  • 186
    Mitchell, D. L., M. Byrom, S. Chiarello and M. G. Lowery (2001) Attenuation of DNA damage in the dermis and epidermis of the albino hairless mouse by chronic exposure to ultraviolet-A and -B radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 8389.
  • 187
    Mitchell, D. L., M. Byrom, S. Chiarello and M. G. Lowery (2001) Effects of chronic exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on DNA repair in the dermis and epidermis of the hairless mouse. J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 209215.
  • 188
    Mitchell, D. L., J. M. Clarkson and G. M. Adair (1986) The DNA of UV-irradiated normal and excision-deficient mammalian cells undergoes relaxation in an initial stage of DNA repair. Mutat. Res. 165, 123128.
  • 189
    Mitchell, D. L., J. E. Cleaver and J. H. Epstein (1990) Repair of pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts in mouse skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95, 5559.
  • 190
    Mitchell, D. L., R. Greinert, F. R. De Gruijl, K. L. Guikers, E. W. Breitbart, M. Byrom, M. M. Gallmeier, M. G. Lowery and B. Volkmer (1999) Effects of chronic low-dose ultraviolet B radiation on DNA damage and repair in mouse skin. Cancer Res. 59, 28752884.
  • 191
    Mitchell, D. L., R. M. Humphrey, G. M. Adair, L. H. Thompson and J. M. Clarkson (1988) Repair of (6-4)photoproducts correlates with split-dose recovery in UV-irradiated normal and hypersensitive rodent cells. Mutat. Res. 193, 5363.
  • 192
    Mitchell, D. L., B. Volkmer, E. W. Breitbart, M. Byrom, M. G. Lowery and R. Greinert (2001) Identification of a non-dividing subpopulation of mouse and human epidermal cells exhibiting high levels of persistent ultraviolet photodamage. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 590595.
  • 193
    Mitchell, D. L., M. Z. Zdzienicka, A. A. Van Zeeland and R. S. Nairn (1989) Intermediate (6-4) photoproduct repair in Chinese hamster V79 mutant V-H1 correlates with intermediate levels of DNA incision and repair replication. Mutat. Res. 226, 4347.
  • 194
    Mullaart, E., L. Roza, P. H. Lohman and J. Vijg (1989) The removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA of rat skin cells in vitro and in vivo in relation to aging. Mech. Ageing Dev. 47, 253264.
  • 195
    Nairn, R. S., D. L. Mitchell and J. M. Clarkson (1985) Role of chromatin structure in the repair of DNA photoproducts in mammalian cells. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 47, 181189.
  • 196
    Nijhof, J. G., C. Van Pelt, A. A. Mulder, D. L. Mitchell, L. H. Mullenders and F. R. De Gruijl (2007) Epidermal stem and progenitor cells in murine epidermis accumulate UV damage despite NER proficiency. Carcinogenesis 28, 792800.
  • 197
    Rasko, I., M. Georgieva, G. Farkas, M. Santha, J. Coates, K. Burg, D. L. Mitchell and R. T. Johnson (1993) New patterns of bulk DNA repair in ultraviolet irradiated mouse embryo carcinoma cells following differentiation. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 19, 245255.
  • 198
    Salmon, A. B., M. Ljungman and R. A. Miller (2008) Cells from long-lived mutant mice exhibit enhanced repair of ultraviolet lesions. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 63, 219231.
  • 199
    Schul, W., J. Jans, Y. M. Rijksen, K. H. Klemann, A. P. Eker, J. De Wit, O. Nikaido, S. Nakajima, A. Yasui, J. H. Hoeijmakers and G. T. Van Der Horst (2002) Enhanced repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and improved UV resistance in photolyase transgenic mice. EMBO J. 21, 47194729.
  • 200
    Stefanini, M., A. R. Collins, R. Riboni, M. Klaude, E. Botta, D. L. Mitchell and F. Nuzzo (1991) Novel Chinese hamster ultraviolet-sensitive mutants for excision repair form complementation groups 9 and 10. Cancer Res. 51, 39653971.
  • 201
    Thompson, L. H., D. L. Mitchell, J. D. Regan, S. D. Bouffler, S. A. Stewart, W. L. Carrier, R. S. Nairn and R. T. Johnson (1989) CHO mutant UV61 removes (6-4) photoproducts but not cyclobutane dimers. Mutagenesis 4, 140146.
  • 202
    Vink, A. A., R. J. Berg, F. R. De Gruijl, P. H. Lohman, L. Roza and R. A. Baan (1993) Detection of thymine dimers in suprabasal and basal cells of chronically UV-B exposed hairless mice. J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 795799.
  • 203
    Vink, A. A., R. J. Berg, F. R. De Gruijl, L. Roza and R. A. Baan (1991) Induction, repair and accumulation of thymine dimers in the skin of UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Carcinogenesis 12, 861864.
  • 204
    Vink, A. A., B. Henegouwen, O. Nikaido, R. A. Baan and L. Roza (1994) Removal of UV-induced DNA lesions in mouse epidermis soon after irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 24, 2531.
  • 205
    Vink, A. A., Y. Sontag, F. R. De Gruijl, L. Roza and R. A. Baan (1994) Immunochemical detection of cyclobutane thymine dimers in epidermal Langerhans cells of ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 10, 812.
  • 206
    Wu, F., F. J. Burns, R. H. Zhang, A. N. Uddin and T. G. Rossman (2005) Arsenite-induced alterations of DNA photodamage repair and apoptosis after solar-simulation UVR in mouse keratinocytes in vitro. Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 983986.
  • 207
    Xu, G., G. Spivak, D. L. Mitchell, T. Mori, J. R. McCarrey, C. A. McMahan, R. B. Walter, P. C. Hanawalt and C. A. Walter (2005) Nucleotide excision repair activity varies among murine spermatogenic cell types. Biol. Reprod. 73, 123130.
  • 208
    Zdzienicka, M. Z., D. L. Mitchell, J. Venema, A. Van Hoffen, A. A. Van Zeeland, L. H. Mullenders, J. De Wit and J. W. Simons (1991) DNA repair characteristics and mutability of the UV-sensitive V79 Chinese hamster cell mutant V-B11 (complementation group 7). Mutagenesis 6, 179183.
  • 209
    Zdzienicka, M. Z., L. Roza, A. Westerveld, D. Bootsma and J. W. Simons (1987) Biological and biochemical consequences of the human ERCC-1 repair gene after transfection into a repair-deficient CHO cell line. Mutat. Res. 183, 6974.
  • 210
    Zdzienicka, M. Z., J. Venema, D. L. Mitchell, A. Van Hoffen, A. A. Van Zeeland, H. Vrieling, L. H. Mullenders, P. H. Lohman and J. W. Simons (1992) (6-4) photoproducts and not cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the main UV-induced mutagenic lesions in Chinese hamster cells. Mutat. Res. 273, 7383.
  • 211
    Andley, U. P., Z. Song and D. L. Mitchell (1999) DNA repair and survival in human lens epithelial cells with extended lifespan. Curr. Eye Res. 18, 224230.
  • 212
    Broughton, B. C., A. R. Lehmann, S. A. Harcourt, C. F. Arlett, A. Sarasin, W. J. Kleijer, F. A. Beemer, R. Nairn and D. L. Mitchell (1990) Relationship between pyrimidine dimers, 6-4 photoproducts, repair synthesis and cell survival: Studies using cells from patients with trichothiodystrophy. Mutat. Res. 235, 3340.
  • 213
    Campos, E. I., M. Martinka, D. L. Mitchell, D. L. Dai and G. Li (2004) Mutations of the ING1 tumor suppressor gene detected in human melanoma abrogate nucleotide excision repair. Int. J. Oncol. 25, 7380.
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    Chen, B., D. A. Simpson, Y. Zhou, A. Mitra, D. L. Mitchell, M. Cordeiro-Stone and W. K. Kaufmann (2009) Human papilloma virus type16 E6 deregulates CHK1 and sensitizes human fibroblasts to environmental carcinogens independently of its effect on p53. Cell Cycle 8, 17751787.
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    Cheung, K. J., Jr, D. Mitchell, P. Lin and G. Li (2001) The tumor suppressor candidate p33(ING1) mediates repair of UV-damaged DNA. Cancer Res. 61, 49744977.
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    Chouinard, N., J. P. Therrien, D. L. Mitchell, M. Robert, R. Drouin and M. Rouabhia (2001) Repeated exposures of human skin equivalent to low doses of ultraviolet-B radiation lead to changes in cellular functions and accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Biochem. Cell Biol. 79, 507515.
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    Cleaver, J. E., W. C. Charles, M. L. McDowell, W. J. Sadinski and D. L. Mitchell (1995) Overexpression of the XPA repair gene increases resistance to ultraviolet radiation in human cells by selective repair of DNA damage. Cancer Res. 55, 61526160.
  • 218
    Cleaver, J. E., F. Cortes, D. Karentz, L. H. Lutze, W. F. Morgan, A. N. Player, L. Vuksanovic and D. L. Mitchell (1988) The relative biological importance of cyclobutane dimer and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone dimer photoproducts in human cells: Evidence from a Xeroderma pigmentosum revertant. Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 4149.
  • 219
    Cleaver, J. E., F. Cortes, L. H. Lutze, W. F. Morgan, A. N. Player and D. L. Mitchell (1987) Unique DNA repair properties of a xeroderma pigmentosum revertant. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 33533357.
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    Emmert, S., N. Kobayashi, S. G. Khan and K. H. Kraemer (2000) The xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene leads to selective repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers rather than 6-4 photoproducts. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 21512156.
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    Eveno, E., F. Bourre, X. Quilliet, O. Chevallier-Lagente, L. Roza, A. P. Eker, W. J. Kleijer, O. Nikaido, M. Stefanini, J. H. Hoeijmakers et al. (1995) Different removal of ultraviolet photoproducts in genetically related xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy diseases. Cancer Res. 55, 43254332.
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    Ghosh, R., C. H. Peng and D. L. Mitchell (1996) Evidence for a novel DNA damage binding protein in human cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 69186923.
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    Greinert, R., O. Boguhn, D. Harder, E. W. Breitbart, D. L. Mitchell and B. Volkmer (2000) The dose dependence of cyclobutane dimer induction and repair in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes. Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 701708.
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    Hatton, D. H., D. L. Mitchell, P. T. Strickland and R. T. Johnson (1995) Enhanced photoproduct repair: Its role in the DNA damage-resistance phenotype of human malignant melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 55, 181189.
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    Hexsel, C. L., B. H. Mahmoud, D. Mitchell, J. Rivard, M. Owen, F. M. Strickland, H. W. Lim and I. Hamzavi (2009) A clinical trial and molecular study of photoadaptation in vitiligo. Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 534539.
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    Hiramoto, T., T. Matsunaga, M. Ichihashi, O. Nikaido, Y. Fujiwara and Y. Mishima (1989) Repair of 254 nm ultraviolet-induced (6-4) photoproducts: Monoclonal antibody recognition and differential defects in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups A, D, and variant. J. Invest. Dermatol. 93, 703706.
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    Hori, M., M. U. Udono, H. Yoshida, Y. Urata, K. Koike and M. Ihara (1992) Immunochemical detection of unrepaired cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers of DNAs extracted from human skin tumours. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 284, 283289.
  • 228
    Imoto, K., N. Kobayashi, S. Katsumi, Y. Nishiwaki, T. A. Iwamoto, A. Yamamoto, Y. Yamashina, T. Shirai, S. Miyagawa, Y. Dohi, S. Sugiura and T. Mori (2002) The total amount of DNA damage determines ultraviolet-radiation-induced cytotoxicity after uniform or localized irradiation of human cells. J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 11771182.
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    Ishizaki, K., T. Matsunaga, M. Kato, O. Nikaido and M. Ikenaga (1992) Repair of thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in group A xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines harboring a transferred normal chromosome 9. Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 365369.
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    Karentz, D., D. Mitchell and J. E. Cleaver (1987) Correction of excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum by hamster chromosome fragments involves both classes of pyrimidine dimers. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13, 621625.
  • 231
    Laurent, E., D. L. Mitchell, Z. Estrov, M. Lowery, S. L. Tucker, M. Talpaz and R. Kurzrock (2003) Impact of p210(Bcr-Abl) on ultraviolet C wavelength-induced DNA damage and repair. Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 37223730.
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    Mitchell, D. L., J. E. Cleaver, M. P. Lowery and R. R. Hewitt (1995) Induction and repair of (6-4) photoproducts in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells during the cell cycle. Mutat. Res. 337, 161167.
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    Mitchell, D. L., T. V. Gallagher and R. E. Thomas (2008) The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations. J. Agric. Saf. Health 14, 391404.
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    Mitchell, D. L., C. A. Haipek and J. M. Clarkson (1987) Xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells are not defective in the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 52, 201205.
  • 235
    Mitchell, D. L., T. D. Nguyen and J. E. Cleaver (1990) Nonrandom induction of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts in ultraviolet-irradiated human chromatin. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 53535356.
  • 236
    Mori, T., T. L. Rinaldy, R. S. Athwal, G. P. Kaur, O. Nikaido, R. S. Lloyd and A. Rinaldy (1993) A xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A related gene: Confirmation using monoclonal antibodies against the cyclobutane dimer and (6-4) photoproduct. Mutat. Res. 293, 143150.
  • 237
    Nairn, R. S., D. L. Mitchell, G. M. Adair, L. H. Thompson, M. J. Siciliano and R. M. Humphrey (1989) UV mutagenesis, cytotoxicity and split-dose recovery in a human-CHO cell hybrid having intermediate (6-4) photoproduct repair. Mutat. Res. 217, 193201.
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    Nishiwaki, Y., N. Kobayashi, K. Imoto, T. A. Iwamoto, A. Yamamoto, S. Katsumi, T. Shirai, S. Sugiura, Y. Nakamura, A. Sarasin, S. Miyagawa and T. Mori (2004) Trichothiodystrophy fibroblasts are deficient in the repair of ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4)photoproducts. J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 526532.
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    Otoshi, E., T. Yagi, T. Mori, T. Matsunaga, O. Nikaido, S. T. Kim, K. Hitomi, M. Ikenaga and T. Todo (2000) Respective roles of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, (6-4)photoproducts, and minor photoproducts in ultraviolet mutagenesis of repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum A cells. Cancer Res. 60, 17291735.
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    Plaza, S., A. Boullard, D. Pele, J. J. Cornelis, J. Rommelaere, P. U. Giacomoni and M. Prunieras (1991) Unscheduled DNA synthesis: A quantitative indicator of residual immunodetectable pyrimidine dimers in human fibroblasts after ultraviolet-B irradiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 217227.
  • 241
    Rosenstein, B. S. and D. L. Mitchell (1991) The repair of DNA damages induced in normal human skin fibroblasts exposed to simulated sunlight. Radiat. Res. 126, 338342.
  • 242
    Roth, M., L. R. Emmons, M. Haner, H. J. Muller and J. M. Boyle (1989) Age-related decrease in an early step of DNA-repair of normal human lymphocytes exposed to ultraviolet-irradiation. Exp. Cell Res. 180, 171177.
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    Suquet, C., D. L. Mitchell and M. J. Smerdon (1995) Repair of UV-induced (6-4) photoproducts in nucleosome core DNA. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1650716509.
  • 244
    Takahashi, Y., S. Moriwaki, Y. Sugiyama, Y. Endo, K. Yamazaki, T. Mori, M. Takigawa and S. Inoue (2005) Decreased gene expression responsible for post-ultraviolet DNA repair synthesis in aging: A possible mechanism of age-related reduction in DNA repair capacity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 435442.
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    Ueda, M., T. Matsunaga, T. Bito, O. Nikaido and M. Ichihashi (1996) Higher cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and (6-4) photoproduct yields in epidermis of normal humans with increased sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 12, 2226.
  • 246
    Wakasugi, M., Y. Abe, Y. Yoshida, T. Matsunaga and O. Nikaido (1996) Purification of a novel UV-damaged-DNA binding protein highly specific for (6-4) photoproduct. Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 10991004.
  • 247
    Young, A. R., C. A. Chadwick, G. I. Harrison, J. L. Hawk, O. Nikaido and C. S. Potten (1996) The in situ repair kinetics of epidermal thymine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in human skin types I and II. J. Invest. Dermatol. 106, 13071313.
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    Snopov, S. A., F. R. De Gruijl, L. Roza and J. C. Van Der Leun (2004) Immunochemical study of DNA modifications in the nuclei of UV-damaged lymphocytes. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 8590.
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    Volker, M., M. J. Mone, P. Karmakar, A. Van Hoffen, W. Schul, W. Vermeulen, J. H. Hoeijmakers, R. Van Driel, A. A. Van Zeeland and L. H. Mullenders (2001) Sequential assembly of the nucleotide excision repair factors in vivo. Mol. Cell 8, 213224.
  • 250
    Mone, M. J., M. Volker, O. Nikaido, L. H. Mullenders, A. A. Van Zeeland, P. J. Verschure, E. M. Manders and R. Van Driel (2001) Local UV-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei results in local transcription inhibition. EMBO Rep. 2, 10131017.
  • 251
    Katsumi, S., N. Kobayashi, K. Imoto, A. Nakagawa, Y. Yamashina, T. Muramatsu, T. Shirai, S. Miyagawa, S. Sugiura, F. Hanaoka, T. Matsunaga, O. Nikaido and T. Mori (2001) In situ visualization of ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage repair in locally irradiated human fibroblasts. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 11561161.
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    Fitch, M. E., I. V. Cross and J. M. Ford (2003) p53 responsive nucleotide excision repair gene products p48 and XPC, but not p53, localize to sites of UV-irradiation-induced DNA damage, in vivo. Carcinogenesis 24, 843850.
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    Fitch, M. E., S. Nakajima, A. Yasui and J. M. Ford (2003) In vivo recruitment of XPC to UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by the DDB2 gene product. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4690646910.
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    Wakasugi, M., A. Kawashima, H. Morioka, S. Linn, A. Sancar, T. Mori, O. Nikaido and T. Matsunaga (2002) DDB accumulates at DNA damage sites immediately after UV irradiation and directly stimulates nucleotide excision repair. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 16371640.
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    Wang, Q. E., Q. Zhu, M. A. Wani, G. Wani, J. Chen and A. A. Wani (2003) Tumor suppressor p53 dependent recruitment of nucleotide excision repair factors XPC and TFIIH to DNA damage. DNA Repair (Amst) 2, 483499.
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    Ford, J. M. and P. C. Hanawalt (1997) Expression of wild-type p53 is required for efficient global genomic nucleotide excision repair in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 2807328080.
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    Ford, J. M., E. L. Baron and P. C. Hanawalt (1998) Human fibroblasts expressing the human papillomavirus E6 gene are deficient in global genomic nucleotide excision repair and sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation. Cancer Res. 58, 599603.
  • 258
    Fitch, M. E., I. V. Cross, S. J. Turner, S. Adimoolam, C. X. Lin, K. G. Williams and J. M. Ford (2003) The DDB2 nucleotide excision repair gene product p48 enhances global genomic repair in p53 deficient human fibroblasts. DNA Repair (Amst) 2, 819826.
  • 259
    Hwang, B. J., J. M. Ford, P. C. Hanawalt and G. Chu (1999) Expression of the p48 xeroderma pigmentosum gene is p53-dependent and is involved in global genomic repair. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 424428.
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    Tang, J. Y., B. J. Hwang, J. M. Ford, P. C. Hanawalt and G. Chu (2000) Xeroderma pigmentosum p48 gene enhances global genomic repair and suppresses UV-induced mutagenesis. Mol. Cell 5, 737744.
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    Mitchell, D. (2004) Successful treatment of granuloma faciale with tacrolimus. Dermatol. Online J. 10, 23.
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    Mitchell, D. L. and R. S. Nairn (1989) The biology of the (6-4) photoproduct. Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 805819.
  • 263
    De Lima-Bessa, K. M., M. G. Armelini, V. Chigancas, J. F. Jacysyn, G. P. Amarante-Mendes, A. Sarasin and C. F. Menck (2008) CPDs and 6-4PPs play different roles in UV-induced cell death in normal and NER-deficient human cells. DNA Repair (Amst) 7, 303312.
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    Nakajima, S., L. Lan, S. Kanno, M. Takao, K. Yamamoto, A. P. Eker and A. Yasui (2004) UV light-induced DNA damage and tolerance for the survival of nucleotide excision repair-deficient human cells. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 4667446677.
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    Mitchell, D. L. (2000) Effects of cytosine methylation on pyrimidine dimer formation in DNA. Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 162165.
  • 266
    Courdavault, S., C. Baudouin, M. Charveron, B. Canguilhem, A. Favier, J. Cadet and T. Douki (2005) Repair of the three main types of bipyrimidine DNA photoproducts in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB and UVA radiations. DNA Repair (Amst) 4, 836844.
  • 267
    Mitchell, D. L. and P. S. Hartman (1990) The regulation of DNA repair during development. BioEssays 12, 7479.
  • 268
    Nouspikel, T. and P. C. Hanawalt (2000) Terminally differentiated human neurons repair transcribed genes but display attenuated global DNA repair and modulation of repair gene expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 15621570.
  • 269
    Yamamoto, A., Y. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, T. Iwamoto, A. Yoshioka, H. Kuniyasu, T. Kishimoto and T. Mori (2007) Neurons and astrocytes exhibit lower activities of global genome nucleotide excision repair than do fibroblasts. DNA Repair (Amst) 6, 649657.
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    Van Der Wees, C. G., M. P. Vreeswijk, M. Persoon, A. Van Der Laarse, A. A. Van Zeeland and L. H. Mullenders (2003) Deficient global genome repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in terminally differentiated myocytes and proliferating fibroblasts from the rat heart. DNA Repair (Amst) 2, 12971308.
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    Hsu, P. H., P. C. Hanawalt and T. Nouspikel (2007) Nucleotide excision repair phenotype of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines at various stages of differentiation. Mutat. Res. 614, 315.
  • 272
    Mitchell, D. L. (1999) Quantification of DNA photopoducts in mammalian cell DNA using radioimmunoassay. In Methods in Molecular Biology, DNA Repair Protocols (Edited by D. S.Henderson), pp. 165175. The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ.
  • 273
    Sontag, Y., C. L. Guikers, A. A. Vink, F. R. De Gruijl, H. Van Loveren, J. Garssen, L. Roza, M. L. Kripke, J. C. Van Der Leun and W. A. Van Vloten (1995) Cells with UV-specific DNA damage are present in murine lymph nodes after in vivo UV irradiation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 734738.
  • 274
    Arlett, C. F., J. E. Lowe, S. A. Harcourt, A. P. Waugh, J. Cole, L. Roza, B. L. Diffey, T. Mori, O. Nikaido and M. H. Green (1993) Hypersensitivity of human lymphocytes to UV-B and solar irradiation. Cancer Res. 53, 609614.
  • 275
    Vink, A. A., F. M. Strickland, C. Bucana, P. A. Cox, L. Roza, D. B. Yarosh and M. L. Kripke (1996) Localization of DNA damage and its role in altered antigen-presenting cell function in ultraviolet-irradiated mice. J. Exp. Med. 183, 14911500.
  • 276
    Nghiem, D. X., N. Kazimi, D. L. Mitchell, A. A. Vink, H. N. Ananthaswamy, M. L. Kripke and S. E. Ullrich (2002) Mechanisms underlying the suppression of established immune responses by ultraviolet radiation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 600608.
  • 277
    George, A. L., H. J. Peat and A. G. Buma (2002) Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica. Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 274280.
  • 278
    Modos, K., S. Gaspar, T. Kerekgyarto, A. A. Vink, L. Roza and A. Fekete (1999) The role of the spectral sensitivity curve in the selection of relevant biological dosimeters for solar UV monitoring. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 53, 2025.
  • 279
    Schuch, A. P., R. Da Silva Galhardo, K. M. De Lima-Bessa, N. J. Schuch and C. F. Menck (2009) Development of a DNA-dosimeter system for monitoring the effects of solar-ultraviolet radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 111120.
  • 280
    Mitchell, D. L. and D. Karentz (1993) The induction and repair of DNA photodamage in the environment. In Environmental UV Photobiology (Edited by A. R.Young, L. O.Bjorn, J.Moan and W.Nultsch), pp. 345378. Plenum Press, New York.
  • 281
    Mitchell, D. L., J. Meador, L. Paniker, D. Gasparutto, W. H. Jeffrey and J. Cadet (2002) Development and application of a novel immunoassay for measuring oxidative DNA damage in the environment. Photochem. Photobiol. 75, 257265.
  • 282
    Scott, C. E., J. E. Saros, C. E. Williamson, C. R. Salm, S. C. Peters and D. L. Mitchell (2009) Effects of nutrients and dissolved organic matter on the response of phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation: Experimental comparison in spring versus summer. Hydrobiologia 619, 155166.
  • 283
    Tucker, A., C. E. Williamson, K. Rose, J. Oris, S. J. Connelly, M. Olson and D. Mitchell (2009) Ultraviolet radiation affects invasibility of warmwater fishes in lake ecosystems. Ecology. [In press]