Far-Infrared Radiation Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation

Authors

  • Cheng-Shyuan Rau,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
    • These two authors contributed equally to this work

  • Johnson Chia-Shen Yang,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
    • These two authors contributed equally to this work

  • Seng-Feng Jeng,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Yi-Chun Chen,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Chia-Jung Lin,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Chia-Jung Wu,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Tsu-Hsiang Lu,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ching-Hua Hsieh

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Search for more papers by this author

Corresponding author email: m93chinghua@gmail.com (Ching-Hua Hsieh)

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the in vitro angiogenic ability of far-infrared (FIR) radiation in the skin-derived cultured human microvascular endothelial cells and to elucidate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in this process. The results revealed that FIR radiation from a WSTM TY301 FIR emitter activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not Akt or c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK), and significantly promoted angiogenesis by increasing tube formation in Matrigel and the migration of cells across an eight micron polyester filter. The addition of 50 μm PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the activation of ERK and the enhanced angiogenesis; in contrast, the inhibition of p38 phosphorylation did not inhibit the enhanced angiogenesis. After FIR radiation, there was no increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms (VEGF-A, -B, -C and -D) mRNA and VEGF protein, no increase phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) detected using Western blotting, and no increase in NO production detected using flow cytometry in cells pre-incubated with the cell-permeable NO-binding dye diluted 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′, 7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA). This study revealed that FIR radiation possesses in vitro angiogenic activity via the activation of the MEK/ERK but not the VEGF/Akt/eNOS-dependent signaling pathways.

Ancillary