Epigenetic Alterations in Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis: Interaction of Bioactive Dietary Components on Epigenetic Targets

Authors

  • Santosh K. Katiyar,

    Corresponding author
    1. Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL
    2. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
    3. Department of Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
    4. Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
      Corresponding author email: skatiyar@uab.edu (Santosh K. Katiyar)
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  • Tripti Singh,

    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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  • Ram Prasad,

    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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  • Qian Sun,

    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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  • Mudit Vaid

    1. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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  • This paper is part of the Special Issue in Commemoration of the 70th birthday of Dr. David R. Bickers.

Corresponding author email: skatiyar@uab.edu (Santosh K. Katiyar)

Abstract

The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of various diseases including the cancers has been realized. As epigenetic changes are reversible heritable changes, these can be utilized as an effective strategy for the prevention of cancers. DNA methylation is the most characterized epigenetic mechanism that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. Although limited available data suggest that silencing of tumor suppressor genes in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-exposed epidermis leads to photocarcinogenesis and is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications including alterations in DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferases and histone acetylations. Various bioactive dietary components have been shown to protect skin from UV radiation-induced skin tumors in animal models. The role of bioactive dietary components, such as, (−)-epicatechins from green tea and proanthocyanidins from grape seeds has been assessed in chemoprevention of UV-induced skin carcinogenesis and underlying epigenetic mechanism in vitro and in vivo animal models. These bioactive components have the ability to block UV-induced DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications in the skin required for the silencing of tumor suppressor genes (e.g. Cip1/p21, p16INK4a). This information is of importance for understanding the role of epigenetic modulation in UV-induced skin tumor and the chemopreventive mechanism of bioactive dietary components.

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