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UV-B Exposure Causes DNA Damage and Changes in Protein Expression in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Posthatched Embryos

Authors

  • Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland
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  • Kirsi Vähäkangas,

    1. University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy/Toxicology, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
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  • Aimo Oikari

    1. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland
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*Corresponding author email: eeva-riikka.vehniainen@jyu.fi (Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen)

Abstract

The ongoing anthropogenically caused ozone depletion and climate change has increased the amount of biologically harmful UV-B radiation, which is detrimental to fish in embryonal stages. The effects of UV-B radiation on the levels and locations of DNA damage manifested as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and p53 protein in newly hatched embryos of pike were examined. Pike larvae were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of CPDs in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. Also at a fluence rate occurring in nature, the DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences.

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