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Geographical Variation in Residence and Risk of Multiple Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers in US Women and Men

Authors

  • Erin X. Wei-Passanese,

    1. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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  • Jiali Han,

    1. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
    2. Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
    3. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
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  • Wen Lin,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
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  • Tricia Li,

    1. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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  • Francine Laden,

    1. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
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  • Abrar A. Qureshi

    Corresponding author
    1. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
    2. Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
      Corresponding author email: abrar.qureshi@channing.harvard.edu (Abrar A. Qureshi)
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Corresponding author email: abrar.qureshi@channing.harvard.edu (Abrar A. Qureshi)

Abstract

Residence in high ultraviolet (UV) locations is associated with increased risk for incident nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, the effect of geographic location on multiple NMSC development has not been well studied. We evaluated the association between state of residence at birth, age 15 and 30 and risk of multiple NMSCs among 80 275 women and men. After adjusting for age, gender, hair color, number of sunburns, tanning ability, family history of melanoma and nevus count, the cumulative relative risks (RRs) of developing ≥1 NMSC for those consistently residing in medium- and high-UV index states were 1.20 (95% CI 1.14–1.27) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.32–1.53) respectively. We found that compared to individuals with one lifetime NMSC, the multivariate cumulative RRs of developing ≥2 NMSCs for those who stayed in medium- and high-UV index states at all three timepoints were 1.09 (95% CI 1.00–1.19) and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02–1.30) respectively. These results cannot account for migration during the interval period and seasonal changes in residence; further, as BCC is the predominant NMSC, the results may be BCC-driven. In conclusion, we found that consistent residence in medium- or high-UVR locations was significantly associated an incremental risk of ≥2 NMSCs later in life.

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