SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Abstract

Towards our overall objectives of developing potent antimicrobial materials to combat the escalating threat to human health posed by the transmission of surface-adhering pathogenic bacteria, we have investigated the photobactericidal activity of cellulose nanocrystals that have been modified with a porphyrin-derived photosensitizer (PS). The ability of these previously synthesized porphyrin-cellulose-nanocrystals (CNC-Por (1)) to mediate bacterial photodynamic inactivation was investigated as a function of bacterial strain, incubation time and illumination time. Despite forming an insoluble suspension, CNC-Por (1) showed excellent efficacy toward the photodynamic inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with the best results achieving 5–6 log units reduction in colony forming units (CFUs) upon illumination with visible light (400–700 nm; 118 J cm−2). CNC-Por (1) mediated the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, although at reduced activity (2–3 log units reduction). Confocal laser scanning microscopy of CNC-Por (1) after incubation with A. baumannii or S. aureus suggested a lack of internalization of the PS. Research into alternative materials such as CNC-Por (1) may lead to their application in hospitals and healthcare-related industries wherein novel materials with the capability of reducing the rates of transmission of a wide range of bacteria, particularly antibiotic resistant strains, are desired.