In the present study, the seeds of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) var. Mattu Gulla were irradiated with single exposure of He–Ne laser at different doses of 5–40 J cm−2 and germinated aseptically. Thirty day old seedlings were harvested and the germination, growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were estimated and compared with un-irradiated control seedlings. A significant enhancement in growth characters were noted with respect to length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots. In addition, chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid content, anthocyanin and amylases (α and β) activities were found to be altered. Significant alterations in percentage of seed germination (P < 0.001) and time to 50% germination (P < 0.001) were observed in the irradiated seeds compared with the un-irradiated controls. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that low dose (5–30 J cm−2) of He–Ne laser irradiation enhanced the germination process and altered growth, by positively influencing physiological and biochemical parameters of the brinjal seedlings compared with un-irradiated control under in vitro conditions.