• 1
    Lucas, R., T. McMichael, W. Smith and B. Armstrong (2006) Solar ultraviolet radiation. Global burden of disease from solar ultraviolet radiation. In Environmental Burden of Disease (Edited by A. Prüss-Üstün, H. Zeeb, C. Mathers and M. Repacholi), pp. 1258. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  • 2
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and Australian Association of Cancer Registries (2005) Cancer in Australia: An Overview, 2008. Cancer Series no. 46. AIHW, Canberra.
  • 3
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2005) Health System Expenditures on Cancer and Other Neoplasms in Australia. Series Number 22. AIHW, Canberra.
  • 4
    Holvik, K., H. E. Meyer, E. Haug and L. Brunvand (2004) Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in five immigrant groups living in Oslo, Norway: The Oslo Immigrant Health Study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 5763.
  • 5
    Hintzpeter, B., C. Scheidt-Nave, H. K. Müller, L. Schenk and G. B. M. Mensink (2008) Higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is associated with immigrant background among children and adolescents in Germany. J. Nutr. 138, 14821490.
  • 6
    Dwyer, T., L. Blizzard, P. Gies, R. Ashbolt and C. Roy (1996) Assessment of habitual sun exposure in adolescents via questionnaire-a comparison with objective measurement using polysulphone badges. Melanoma Res. 6, 231239.
  • 7
    Chodick, G., M. D. Freedman, R. K. Kwok, T. R. Fears, M. S. Linet, B. H. Alexander and R. A. Kleinerman (2007) Agreement between contemporaneously recorded and subsequently recalled time spent outdoors: Implications for environmental exposure studies. Ann. Epidemiol. 17, 106111.
  • 8
    Glanz, K., P. Gies, D. L. O'Riordan, T. Elliott, E. Nehl, F. McCarty and E. Davis (2010) Validity of self-reported solar UVR exposure compared with objectively measured UVR exposure. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 19, 30053012.
  • 9
    O' Riordan, D. L., W. R. Stanton, M. Eyeson Annan, P. Gies and C. Roy (2000) Correlations between reported and measured ultraviolet radiation exposure of mothers and young children. Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 6064.
  • 10
    Thieden, E., M. S. Ågren and H. C. Wulf (2001) Solar UVR exposures of indoor workers in a Working and a Holiday Period assessed by personal dosimeters and sun exposure diaries. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 17, 249255.
  • 11
    Sullivan, S. S., J. L. Cobb, C. J. Rosen, M. F. Holick, T. C. Chen, M. G. Kimlin and A. V. Parisi (2003) Assessment of sun exposure in adolescent girls using activity diaries. Nutr. Res. 23, 631644.
  • 12
    Chodick, G., R. A. Kleinerman, M. S. Linet, T. Fears, R. K. Kwok, M. G. Kimlin, B. H. Alexander and D. M. Freedman (2008) Agreement between diary records of time spent outdoors and personal ultraviolet radiation dose measurements. Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 713718.
  • 13
    Herlihy, E., P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy and M. Jones (1994) Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities. Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288294.
  • 14
    English, D. R., B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker (1998) Reproducibility of reported measurements of sun exposure in a case–control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7, 857863.
  • 15
    Vajdic, C. M., A. Kricker, M. Giblin, J. McKenzie, J. Aitken, G. G. Giles and B. K. Armstrong (2002) Sun exposure predicts risk of ocular melanoma in Australia. Int. J. Cancer 101, 175182.
  • 16
    Karagas, M. R., M. S. Zens, H. H. Nelson, K. Mabuchi, A. E. Perry, T. A. Stukel, L. A. Mott, A. S. Andrew, K. M. Applebaum and M. Linet (2007) Measures of cumulative exposure from a standardized sun exposure history questionnaire: A comparison with histologic assessment of solar skin damage. Am. J. Epidemiol. 165, 719726.
  • 17
    English, D. R., B. K. Armstrong, A. Kricker, M. G. Winter, P. J. Heenan and P. L. Randell (1998) Case control study of sun exposure and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Int. J. Cancer 77, 347353.
  • 18
    Hughes, A. M., B. K. Armstrong, C. M. Vajdic, J. Turner, A. E. Grulich, L. Fritschi, S. Milliken, J. Kaldor, G. Benke and A. Kricker (2004) Sun exposure may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case–control study. Int. J. Cancer 112, 865871.
  • 19
    45 and Up Study Collaborators (2008) Cohort profile: The 45 and up study. Int. J. Epidemiol. 37, 941947.
  • 20
    Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2012) Canberra in 2011: A Normal Year for the ACT. Available at: Accessed on 3 May 2012.
  • 21
    Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2012) Climate Data Online. Available at: Accessed on 5 May 2012.
  • 22
    Dwyer, T., L. Blizzard, R. Ashbolt, J. Plumb, M. Berwick and J. M. Stankovich (2002) Cutaneous melanin density of caucasians measured by spectrophotometry and risk of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155, 614621.
  • 23
    Lucas, R. M., A. L. Ponsonby, K. Dear, B. V. Taylor, T. Dwyer, A. J. McMichael, P. Valery, I. Van Der Mei, D. Williams and M. P. Pender (2009) Associations between silicone skin cast score, cumulative sun exposure, and other factors in the ausimmune study: A multicenter Australian study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18, 28872894.
  • 24
    Holman, C. D. J., B. K. Armstrong, P. R. Evans, G. J. Lumsden, K. J. Dallimore, C. J. Meehan, J. Beagley and I. M. Gibson (1984) Relationship of solar keratosis and history of skin cancer to objective measures of actinic skin damage. Br. J. Dermatol. 110, 129138.
  • 25
    Allen, M. and R. McKenzie (2005) Enhanced UV exposure on a ski-field compared with exposures at sea level. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 429437.
  • 26
    Thieden, E., M. Agren and H. Wulf (2000) The wrist is a reliable body site for personal dosimetry of ultraviolet radiation. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 16, 5761.
  • 27
    Swinscow, T. (1996) Statistics at Square One. BMJ Publishing Group, London.
  • 28
    Shrout, P. and J. Fleiss (1979) Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Pyschological Bulletin 86, 420428.
  • 29
    Shrout, P. and J. Fleiss (1983) The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 30
    Martin Bland, J. and D. G. Altman (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 327, 307310.
  • 31
    Schmidt, M. and K. Steindorf (2006) Statistical methods for the validation of Questionnaires—Discrepancy between theory and practice. Methods Inf. Med. 45, 409413.
  • 32
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2003) The Active Australia Survey: A guide and Manual for Implementation, Analysis and Reporting. Catalogue no. CVD 22. AIHW, Canberra.
  • 33
    van der Mei, I. A. F., A. L. Ponsonby, T. Dwyer, L. Blizzard, B. V. Taylor, T. Kilpatrick, H. Butzkueven and A. J. McMichael (2007) Vitamin D levels in people with multiple sclerosis and community controls in Tasmania, Australia. J. Neurol. 254, 581590.
  • 34
    Munger, K. L., L. I. Levin, B. W. Hollis, N. S. Howard and A. Ascherio (2006) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA 296, 28322838.
  • 35
    Lucas, R., A. L. Ponsonby, K. Dear, P. Valery, M. Pender, B. Taylor, T. Kilpatrick, T. Dwyer, A. Coulthard and C. Chapman (2011) Sun exposure and vitamin D are independent risk factors for CNS demyelination. Neurology 76, 540548.
  • 36
    Simpson Jr, S., B. V. Taylor, L. Blizzard, A. L. Ponsonby, F. Pittas, H. Tremlett, T. Dwyer, P. Gies and I. van Der Mei (2010) Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with lower relapse risk in multiple sclerosis. Ann. Neurol. 68, 193203.
  • 37
    Hosmer, D. and S. Lemeshow (2000) Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  • 38
    Reichenheim, M. E. (2004) Confidence intervals for the kappa statistic. Stat. J. 4, 421428.
  • 39
    Altman, D. G. (1991) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • 40
    Reeder, A. I., V. A. Hammond and A. R. Gray (2010) Questionnaire items to assess skin color and erythemal sensitivity: Reliability, validity, and “the Dark Shift”. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 19, 11671173.
  • 41
    Giovannucci, E., Y. Liu, E. B. Rimm, B. W. Hollis, C. S. Fuchs, M. J. Stampfer and W. C. Willett (2006) Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 98, 451459.
  • 42
    Millen, A. E., J. Wactawski-Wende, M. Pettinger, M. L. Melamed, F. A. Tylavsky, S. Liu, J. Robbins, A. Z. LaCroix, M. S. LeBoff and R. D. Jackson (2010) Predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D Clinical Trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 13241325.
  • 43
    Van der Mei, I. A. F., L. Blizzard, A. L. Ponsonby and T. Dwyer (2006) Validity and reliability of adult recall of past sun exposure in a case–control study of multiple sclerosis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15, 15381544.
  • 44
    Wang, T. J., F. Zhang, J. B. Richards, B. Kestenbaum, J. B. van Meurs, D. Berry, D. P. Kiel, E. A. Streeten, C. Ohlsson, D. L. Koller, L. Peltonen, J. D. Cooper, P. F. O'Reilly, D. K. Houston, N. L. Glazer, L. Vandenput, M. Peacock, J. Shi, F. Rivadeneira, M. I. McCarthy, P. Anneli, I. H. de Boer, M. Mangino, B. Kato, D. J. Smyth, S. L. Booth, P. F. Jacques, G. L. Burke, M. Goodarzi, C.-L. Cheung, M. Wolf, K. Rice, D. Goltzman, N. Hidiroglou, M. Ladouceur, N. J. Wareham, L. J. Hocking, D. Hart, N. K. Arden, C. Cooper, S. Malik, W. D. Fraser, A.-L. Hartikainen, G. Zhai, H. M. Macdonald, N. G. Forouhi, R. J. F. Loos, D. M. Reid, A. Hakim, E. Dennison, Y. Liu, C. Power, H. E. Stevens, L. Jaana, R. S. Vasan, N. Soranzo, J. Bojunga, B. M. Psaty, M. Lorentzon, T. Foroud, T. B. Harris, A. Hofman, J.-O. Jansson, J. A. Cauley, A. G. Uitterlinden, Q. Gibson, M.-R. Järvelin, D. Karasik, D. S. Siscovick, M. J. Econs, S. B. Kritchevsky, J. C. Florez, J. A. Todd, J. Dupuis, E. Hyppönen and T. D. Spector (2010) Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: A genome-wide association study. Lancet 376, 180188.
  • 45
    Olds, W. J., A. R. McKinley, M. R. Moore and M. G. Kimlin (2008) In vitro model of vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) synthesis by UV radiation: Dose–response relationships. J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 93, 8893.
  • 46
    Mason, R. (2010) Vitamin D: A hormone for all seasons. Climacteric 14, 197203.
  • 47
    Glass, D., M. Lens, R. Swaminathan, T. D. Spector and V. Bataille (2009) Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: Low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK. PLoS ONE 4, e6477.
  • 48
    Parsons, H. M. (1974) What happened at Hawthorne?. Science 183, 922932.
  • 49
    Ponsonby, A. L., T. Dwyer and D. Couper (1996) Is this finding relevant? Generalisation and epidemiology. Aust. N. Z. J. Public Health 20, 5456.
  • 50
    Mealing, N. M., E. Banks, L. R. Jorm, S. D. Steel, M. S. Clements and K. D. Rogers (2010) Investigation of relative risk estimates from studies of the same population with contrasting response rates and designs. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 10, 26.