• 1
    Schreiber, U. (1986) Detection of rapid induction kinetics with a new type of high-frequency modulated chlorophyll fluorimeter. Photosynth. Res. 9, 261272.
  • 2
    Ralph, P. J., U. Schreiber, R. Gademann, M. Kühl and A. W. D. Larkum (2005) Coral photobiology studied with a new imaging pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. J. Phycol. 41, 335342.
  • 3
    Ralph, P. J., R. Gademann and W. C. Dennison (1998) In situ seagrass photosynthesis measured using a submersible, pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer. Mar. Biol. 132, 367373.
  • 4
    Beer, S., C. Larsson, O. Poryan and L. Axelsson (2000) Photosynthetic rates of Ulva (Chlorophyta) measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Eur. J. Phycol. 35, 6974.
  • 5
    Serôdio, J., J. Marques da Silva and F. Catarino (1997) Nondestructive tracing of migratory rhythms of intertidal benthic microalgae using in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence. J. Phycol. 33, 542553.
  • 6
    Kromkamp, J., C. Barranguet and J. Peene (1998) Determination of microphytobenthos PSII quantum efficiency and photosynthetic activity by means of variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 162, 4555.
  • 7
    Jesus, B., V. Brotas, M. Marani and D. M. Paterson (2005) Spatial dynamics of microphytobenthos determined by PAM fluorescence. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 60, 3042.
  • 8
    Underwood, G. J. C. and J. Kromkamp (1999) Primary production by phytoplankton and microphytobenthos in estuaries. Adv. Ecol. Res. 29, 93153.
  • 9
    Genty, B., J. M. Briantais and N. R. Baker (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 990, 8792.
  • 10
    Serôdio, J., S. Vieira, S. Cruz and F. Barroso (2005) Short-term variability in the photosynthetic activity of microphytobenthos as detected by measuring rapid light curves using variable fluorescence. Mar. Biol. 146, 903914.
  • 11
    Perkins, R. G., J. L. Mouget, S. Lefebvre and J. Lavaud (2006) Light response curve methodology and possible implications in the application of chlorophyll fluorescence to benthic diatoms. Mar. Biol. 149, 703712.
  • 12
    Forster, R. M. and J. C. Kromkamp (2004) Modelling the effects of chlorophyll fluorescence from subsurface layers on photosynthetic efficiency measurements in microphytobenthic algae. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 284, 922.
  • 13
    Serôdio, J. (2004) Analysis of variable chlorophyll fluorescence in microphytobenthos assemblages: Implications of the use of depth-integrated measurements. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 36, 137152.
  • 14
    Perkins, R. G., J. C. Kromkamp, J. Serôdio, J. Lavaud, B. Jesus, J. L. Mouget, S. Lefebvre and R. M. Forster (2010) The application of variable chlorophyll fluorescence to microphytobenthic biofilms. In Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications (Edited by D. J. Suggett, O. Prášil and M. A. Borowitzka), pp. 237275. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • 15
    Omasa, K., K. L. Shimazaki, I. Aiga, W. Larcher and M. Onoe (1987) Image analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence transients for diagnosing the photosynthetic system of attached leaves. Plant Physiol. 84, 748752.
  • 16
    Oxborough, K. and N. R. Baker (1997) An instrument capable of imaging chlorophyll a fluorescence from intact leaves at very low irradiance and at cellular and subcellular levels of organization. Plant, Cell Environ. 20, 14731483.
  • 17
    Nedbal, L., J. Soukupova, D. Kaftan, J. Whitmarsh and M. Trilek (2000) Kinetic imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence using modulated light. Photosynth. Res. 66, 2534.
  • 18
    Oxborough, K. (2004) Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: Theoretical and practical aspects of an emerging technique for the monitoring of photosynthetic performance. J. Exp. Bot. 55, 11951205.
  • 19
    Oxborough, K., A. R. M. Hanlon, G. J. C. Underwood and N. R. Baker (2000) In vivo estimation of the Photosystem II photochemical efficiency of individual microphytobenthic cells using high-resolution imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 14201425.
  • 20
    Scholes, J. D. and S. A. Rolfe (1996) Photosynthesis in localized regions of oat leaves infected with crown rust (Puccinia coronata): Quantitative imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence. Planta 199, 573582.
  • 21
    Meng, Q., K. Siebke, P. Lippert, B. Baur, U. Mukherjee and E. Weis (2001) Sink-source transition in tobacoo leaves visualized using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. New Phytol. 151, 585596.
  • 22
    Hill, R., U. Schreiber, R. Gademann, A. W. D. Larkum, M. Kühl and P. J. Ralph (2004) Spatial heterogeneity of photosynthesis and the effect of temperature-induced bleaching conditions in three species of corals. Mar. Biol. 144, 633640.
  • 23
    Perkins, R. G., K. Oxborough, A. R. M. Hanlon, G. J. C. Underwood and N. R. Baker (2002) Can fluorescence be used to estimate the rate of photosynthetic electron transport within microphytobenthic biofilms? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 228, 4756.
  • 24
    Underwood, G. J. C., R. G. Perkins, M. C. Consalvey, A. R. M. Hanlon, K. Oxborough, N. R. Baker and D. M. Paterson (2005) Patterns in microphytobenthic primary productivity: Species-specific variation in migratory rhythms and photosynthetic efficiency in mixed-species biofilms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 755767.
  • 25
    Nielsen, H. D. and S. L. Nielsen (2008) Evaluation of imaging and conventional PAM as a measure of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved marine macroalgae. Aquatic Biol. 3, 121131.
  • 26
    Vieira, S., A. Lavrov, A. Utkin, A. Santos, R. Vilar, J. Marques da Silva and P. Cartaxana (2011) Effects of migration on intertidal microphytobenthos biomass measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). MEPS 432, 4552.
  • 27
    Platt, T., C. L. Gallegos and W. G. Harrison (1980) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton. J. Mar. Res. 38, 687701.
  • 28
    Serôdio, J., H. Coelho, S. Vieira and S. Cruz (2006) Microphytobenthos vertical migratory photoresponse as characterised by light-response curves of surface biomass. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 547556.
  • 29
    Serôdio, J., S. Vieira and F. Barros (2007) Relationship of variable chlorophyll fluorescence indices to photosynthetic rates in microphytobenthos. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 49, 7185.
  • 30
    Serôdio, J., S. Vieira and S. Cruz (2008) Photosynthetic activity, photoprotection and photoinhibition in intertidal microphytobenthos as studied in situ using variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Cont. Shelf Res. 28, 13631375.
  • 31
    Ribeiro, L. (2010) Intertidal benthic diatoms of the Tagus estuary: taxonomic composition and spatial-temporal variation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Lisbon.
  • 32
    Walz (2006) Imaging-PAM M-Series Chlorophyll Fluorometer: Instrument Description and Information for Users. Heinz Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany. 2.52/07.05 3. Revised Version (March 2009).
  • 33
    Kühl, M. and B. Jorgensen (1994) The light-field of microbenthic communities radiance distribution and microscale optics of sandy coastal sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 13681398.
  • 34
    Vogelmann, T. C. and T. Han (2000) Measurement of gradients of absorbed light in spinach leaves from chlorophyll fluorescence profiles. Plant, Cell Environ. 23, 13031311.
  • 35
    Jesus, B., R. G. Perkins, M. Consalvey, V. Brotas and D. M. Paterson (2006) Effects of vertical migrations by benthic microalgae on fluorescence measurements of photophysiology. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 315, 5566.
  • 36
    Cartaxana, P., M. Ruivo, C. Hubas, I. Davidson, J. Serôdio and B. Jesus (2011) Physiological versus behavioral photoprotection in intertidal epipelic and epipsammic benthic diatom communities. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 405, 120127.
  • 37
    Schubert, H., U. Schiewer and E. Tschierner (1989) Fluorescence characteristics of cyanobacteria (blue–green algae). J. Plankton Res. 11, 353359.
  • 38
    Campbell, D., V. Hurry, A. Clarke, P. Gustafsson and G. Öquist (1998) Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and acclimation. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62, 667683.