ABSTRACT— The aim of the current study was to examine the role of individual differences in neurocognitive and temperamental systems of self-regulation in early adolescents’ social and academic competence. Measures used in the study included the Attention Network Test, the Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire, a peer-reported Social Status Questionnaire, a self-reported measure of Schooling Skills, and information on grades obtained by the students in a variety of school subjects (n= 69 12-year olds). Results showed that efficiency of the neurocognitive network of executive attention is related to academic outcomes, particularly in mathematics, as well as to aspects of social adjustment. Temperamental effortful control appears to be a significant predictor of all dimensions of school competence assessed in this study and mediates the relationship between social adjustment and poor schooling outcomes. These data suggest that individual differences in systems of self-regulation are central to understanding processes of learning and social adjustment in the school.