Portions of this manuscript were written while the author was a Visiting Fellow at the Research Institute of the Center for the Comparative Study of Race and Ethnicity at Stanford University, and through the additional support of the Rollo May Foundation at Saybrook Graduate School. I also gratefully acknowledge the thoughtful comments and discussions that informed this work with Diane Ketelle, Claude Steele, Dorothy Steele, Hazel Markus, Mary Murphy, Jim Banks, Cherry Banks, Victoria Esses, John Dovidio, and several reviewers along the way. I also wish to thank the students in my Issues of Race and Ethnicity in Education classes—too many to acknowledge individually, but too important to ignore—in helping me to develop my thinking in this area.
Creating More Effective Multiethnic Schools
Article first published online: 24 NOV 2008
© 2008 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Social Issues and Policy Review
Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 187–241, December 2008
How to Cite
Zirkel, S. (2008), Creating More Effective Multiethnic Schools. Social Issues and Policy Review, 2: 187–241. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-2409.2008.00015.x
- Issue published online: 24 NOV 2008
- Article first published online: 24 NOV 2008
The empirical literature from education, psychology, and sociology is reviewed in order to identify strategies with demonstrated effectiveness in improving either the educational outcomes of students of color, interethnic relations in schools and colleges, or both. The conceptual framework for this review identifies eight core themes that can guide policy and change efforts in this area: (a) the need to explicitly and directly address issues of aversive and institutional racism, (b) the importance of conceiving of schools as agents of change, (c) the importance of leadership in setting a school or district tone, (d) the paradox that strategies for improving the educational outcomes for students of color can only be achieved by focusing on race and ethnicity, but the outcome of these efforts benefit all students, (e) the goals of improving interethnic relations and the educational outcomes of students of color are linked (in that improving one improves the other), (f) the need to explicitly affirm one's confidence in the abilities of students of color, (g) the importance of creating opportunities for the development of a strong, positive racial or ethnic identity, and (h) the need to create settings in which students feel connected to school through their relationships with peers and teachers.