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Recent advances have broadened the application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and contributed to the continuously increasing numbers of transplantations performed worldwide. These include (1) greater utilization of reduced intensity conditioning and improvement of supportive care allowing transplantation of patients up to 70 years of age and with pre-existing medical problems, and (2) expansion of the acceptable stem cell donor pool to unrelated cord blood HSC. Thus, selection of the particular transplant procedure should be guided by patient characteristics such as type and stage of the disease, previous therapies, age and comorbidities. HLA typing of patient and siblings at diagnosis is essential to allow the timely initiation of an unrelated donor search if needed.