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Keywords:

  • functional heartburn;
  • gastroesophageal reflux;
  • integrated anti-reflux therapy;
  • non-erosive reflux disease;
  • proton pump inhibitor

Heartburn is a common symptom in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination can differentiate between reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), but not between NERD and functional heartburn. With the development of new techniques, more NERD patients could be identified among those previously diagnosed with functional heartburn. Most patients with NERD, however, could be identified based on their clinical characteristics and response to proton pump inhibitors and/or integrated anti-gastroesophageal reflux therapy.