• 1
    Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2006 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2006;113:e85e151.
  • 2
    Nohria A, Lewis E, Stevenson LW. Medical management of advanced heart failure. JAMA. 2002;287:628640.
  • 3
    Jessup M, Brozena S. Heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:20072018.
  • 4
    Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult – summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guideline (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). Circulation. 2005;112:18251852.
  • 5
    Adams KF, Zannad F. Clinical definition and epidemiology of advanced heart failure. Am Heart J. 1998;135:S204S215.
  • 6
    Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:21012113.
  • 7
    Taylor DO, Edwards LB, Boucek MM, et al. Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Twenty-third Official Adult Heart Transplantation Report – 2006. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:869879.
  • 8
    Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF Jr, et al; for the Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) Investigators. Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287:15411547.
  • 9
    Hershberger RE, Nauman D, Walker TL, et al. Care processes and clinical outcomes of continuous outpatient support with inotropes (COSI) in patients with refractory advanced stage heart failure. J Card Fail. 2003;9:180187.
  • 10
    Stevenson LW, Miller LW, Desvigne-Nickens P, et al; for the REMATCH Investigators. Left ventricular assist device as destination for patients undergoing intravenous inotropic therapy: a subset analysis from REMATCH (Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure). Circulation. 2004;110:975981.
  • 11
    Aaronson KD, Eppinger MJ, Dyke DB, et al. Left ventricular assist device therapy improves utilization of donor hearts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(8):12471254.
  • 12
    Bhat G. Predictors of clinical outcome in advanced heart failure patients on continuous intravenous milrinone therapy. ASAIO J. 2006;52:677681.
  • 13
    Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:14351443.
  • 14
    Long JW, Kfoury AG, Slaughter MS, et al. Long-term destination therapy with the HeartMate XVE left ventricular assist device: improved outcomes since the REMATCH study. Congest Heart Fail. 2005;11:133138.
  • 15
    Lietz K, Long JW, Kfoury AG, et al. Outcomes of left ventricular assist device implantation as destination therapy in the post-REMATCH era: implications for patient selection. Circulation. 2007;116:497505.
  • 16
    Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure I asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. The SOLVD Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:685691.
  • 17
    Benedict CR, Shelton B, Johnstone DE, et al. Prognostic significance of plasma norepinephrine in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. SOLVD investigators. Circulation. 1996;94:690697.
  • 18
    Dries DL, Exner DV, Gersh BJ, et al. Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk for mortality and heart failure progression in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a retrospective analysis of the SOLVD trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32:695703.
  • 19
    Dries DL, Exner DV, Domanski MJ, et al. The prognostic implications of renal insufficiency in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:681689.
  • 20
    Quinones MA, Greenberg BH, Kopelen HA, et al.; for the SOLVD Investigators. Echocardiographic predictors of clinical outcome in patients with left ventricular dysfunction enrolled in the SOLVD Registry and Trials: significance of left ventricular hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:12371244.
  • 21
    Domanski M, Norman J, Pitt B, et al. Diuretic use, progressive heart failure, and death in patients in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:705708.
  • 22
    Mancini DM, Eisen H, Kussmaul W, et al. Value of peak exercise oxygen consumption for optimal timing of cardiac transplantation in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Circulation. 1991;83:778786.
  • 23
    Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM, et al. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. Circulation. 1997;95:26602667.
  • 24
    Chin MH, Goldman L. Correlates of early hospital readmission or death in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:16401644.
  • 25
    Alla F, Briancon S, Juilliere Y, et al; for the EPICAL Investigators. Differential clinical prognostic classifications in dilated and ischemic advanced heart failure: the EPICAL study. Am Heart J. 2000;139:895904.
  • 26
    Cowie MR, Wood DA, Coats AJS, et al. Survival of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure: a population based study. Heart. 2000;83:505510.
  • 27
    Jong P, Vowinchel E, Liu PP, et al. Prognosis and determinants of survival in patients newly hospitalized for heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:16891694.
  • 28
    Bouvy ML, Heerdink ER, Leufkens HGM, et al. Predicting mortality in patients with heart failure: a pragmatic approach. Heart. 2003;89:605609.
  • 29
    Lee DS, Austin PC, Rouleau JL, et al. Predicting mortality among patients hospitalized for heart failure. Derivation and validation of a clinical model. JAMA. 2003;290:25812587.
  • 30
    Kittleson M, Hurwitz S, Shah MR, et al. Development of circulatory–renal limitations to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors identifies patients with severe heart failure and early mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:20292035.
  • 31
    Felker GM, Leimberger JD, Califf RM, et al. Risk stratification after hospitalization for decompensated heart failure. J Card Fail. 2004;10:46044666.
  • 32
    Fonarow GC, Adams KF, Abraham WT, et al; for the ADHERE Scientific Advisory Committee, Study Group, and Investigators. Risk stratification for in-hospital mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure: classification and regression tree analysis. JAMA. 2005;293:572580.
  • 33
    Rector TS, Ringwala SN, Ringwala SN, et al. Validation of a risk score for dying within 1 year of an admission for heart failure. J Card Fail. 2006;12:276280.
  • 34
    Rohde LE, Goldraich L, Polanczyk CA, et al. A simple clinically based predictive rule for heart failure in-hospital mortality. J Card Fail. 2006;12:587593.
  • 35
    Mahon NG, Blackstone EH, Francis GS, et al. The prognostic value of estimated creatinine clearance alongside functional capacity in ambulatory patients with chronic congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:11061113.
  • 36
    Eshagian S, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Relation of loop diuretic dose to mortality in advanced heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:17591764.
  • 37
    Greenberg B, Lottes SR, Nelson JJ, et al. Predictors of clinical outcomes in patients given carvedilol for heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:14801484.
  • 38
    Levy WC, Mozaffarian D, Linker DT, et al. The Seattle Heart Failure Model. Prediction of survival in heart failure. Circulation. 2006;113:14241433.
  • 39
    Teuteberg JJ, Lewis EF, Nohria A, et al. Characteristics of patients who die with heart failure and a low ejection fraction in the new millennium. J Cardiac Fail. 2006;12:4753.
  • 40
    Stewart GC, Brooks K, Tsang SW, et al. Heart failure patients define threshold for left ventricular assist devices. Circulation. 2006;114(suppl II):II484.
  • 41
    Saxon LA, Bristow MR, Boehmer J, et al. Predictors of sudden cardiac death and appropriate shock in the comparison of medical therapy, pacing, and defibrillation in heart failure (COMPANION) trial. Circulation. 2006;114:27662772.