The aims of this study were to identify risk factors and evaluate the association with clinical outcomes of postoperative cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Data from 2488 consecutive adult patients were analyzed. Patients were classified as having CSA-AKI based on the risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria using peak postoperative creatinine in the postoperative intensive care unit (ICU). Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for CSA-AKI. CSA-AKI occurred in 584 patients (23.5%). CSA-AKI patients had significantly longer aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times. Furthermore, CSA-AKI patients had higher hospital mortality (5.5% vs 1.5%, P<.001) and significantly longer ICU and hospital stays. Independent risk factors for CSA-AKI were age, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and surgery on the thoracic aorta. In conclusion, patients who develop CSA-AKI have a higher preoperative risk profile, more complex surgery, and worse clinical outcomes. Congest Heart Fail. 2010;16(4)(suppl 1):S32–S36. ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.