This study characterized the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in a large contemporary sample of current smokers. Associations between risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque presence were determined by multivariable regression. Participants included 1504 current smokers (58% female) who were a median (interquartile range) of 44.7 (38–53) years old and smoked 25 (15–40) pack-years; 55% had plaque. Pack-years, age, male sex, nonwhite race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, small low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and total high-density lipoproteins were independently associated with CIMT (model R2=0.434, P<.001). Pack-years (odds ratio [OR], 1.14 per 10 pack-years; P=.001), age (OR, 1.75 per 10 years; P<.001), body mass index (OR, 0.91 per 5 kg/m2; P=.035), and small LDLs (OR, 1.11 per 100 nmol/L; P<.001) were independently associated with carotid plaque presence (model χ2=210.7, P<.001). The association between pack-years and carotid plaque was stronger in women (OR, 1.09 per 10 pack-years, Pinteraction=.018).

Prev Cardiol. 2010;13:166–171.©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.