• 1
    Stein PK, Bosner MS, Kleiger RE, et al. Heart rate variability: a measure of cardiac autonomic tone. Am Heart J. 1994;127(5):13761381.
  • 2
    Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Circulation. 1996;93(5):10431065.
  • 3
    Kleiger RE, Miller JP, Bigger JT Jr, et al. Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1987;59(4):256262.
  • 4
    Tsuji H, Venditti FJ Jr, Manders ES, et al. Reduced heart rate variability and mortality risk in an elderly cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1994;90(2):878883.
  • 5
    Tsuji H, Larson MG, Venditti FJ Jr, et al. Impact of reduced heart rate variability on risk for cardiac events. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1996;94(11):28502855.
  • 6
    Chan CT. Heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: an emerging predictive tool for sudden cardiac death? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(10):30613062.
  • 7
    Ranpuria R, Hall M, Chan CT, et al. Heart rate variability (HRV) in kidney failure: measurement and consequences of reduced HRV. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(2):444449.
  • 8
    Hon EH, Lee ST. Electronic evaluation of the fetal heart rate VIII. Patterns preceding fetal death, further observations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1963;87:814826.
  • 9
    Kitney RI, Byrne S, Edmonds ME, et al. Heart rate variability in the assessment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy. Automedica. 1982;4:155167.
  • 10
    Ewing DJ, Martyn CN, Young RJ, et al. The value of cardiovascular autonomic function tests: 10 years experience in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1985;8(5):491498.
  • 11
    Ewing DJ, Campbell IW, Clarke BF. The natural history of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Q J Med. 1980;49(193):95108.
  • 12
    Freeman R, Saul JP, Roberts MS, et al. Spectral analysis of heart rate in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. A comparison with standard tests of autonomic function. Arch Neurol. 1991;48(2):185190.
  • 13
    Parati G, Valentini M. Prognostic relevance of blood pressure variability. Hypertension. 2006;47(2):137138.
  • 14
    Van Vliet BN, Hu L, Scott T, et al. Cardiac hypertrophy and telemetered blood pressure 6 wk after baroreceptor denervation in normotensive rats. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(6 Pt 2):R1759R1769.
  • 15
    Sasaki S, Yoneda Y, Fujita H, et al. Association of blood pressure variability with induction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rats. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7(5):453459.
  • 16
    Eto M, Toba K, Akishita M, et al. Reduced endothelial vasomotor function and enhanced neointimal formation after vascular injury in a rat model of blood pressure lability. Hypertens Res. 2003;26(12):991998.
  • 17
    Shan ZZ, Dai SM, Su DF. Arterial baroreflex deficit induced organ damage in sinoaortic denervated rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38(3):427437.
  • 18
    Miao CY, Tao X, Gong K, et al. Arterial remodeling in chronic sinoaortic-denervated rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;37(1):615.
  • 19
    Su DF, Miao CY. Reduction of blood pressure variability: a new strategy for the treatment of hypertension. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005;26(8):388390.
  • 20
    Sander D, Kukla C, Klingelhofer J, et al. Relationship between circadian blood pressure patterns and progression of early carotid atherosclerosis: a 3-year follow-up study. Circulation. 2000;102(13):15361541.
  • 21
    Pringle E, Phillips C, Thijs L, et al. Systolic blood pressure variability as a risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly hypertensive population. J Hypertens. 2003;21(12):22512257.
  • 22
    Frattola A, Parati G, Cuspidi C, et al. Prognostic value of 24-hour blood pressure variability. J Hypertens. 1993;11(10):11331137.
  • 23
    Verdecchia P, Borgioni C, Ciucci A, et al. Prognostic significance of blood pressure variability in essential hypertension. Blood Press Monit. 1996;1(1):311.
  • 24
    Kikuya M, Hozawa A, Ohokubo T, et al. Prognostic significance of blood pressure and heart rate variabilities: the Ohasama study. Hypertension. 2000;36(5):901906.
  • 25
    Mancia G, Bombelli M, Facchetti R, et al. Long-term prognostic value of blood pressure variability in the general population: results of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni Study. Hypertension. 2007;49(6):12651270.
  • 26
    Tozawa M, Iseki K, Yoshi S, et al. Blood pressure variability as an adverse prognostic risk factor in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14(8):19761981.
  • 27
    Brunelli SM, Thadhani RI, Lynch KE, et al. Association between long-term blood pressure variability and mortality among incident hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52(4):716726.
  • 28
    Inrig JK, Oddone EZ, Hasselblad V, et al. Association of intradialytic blood pressure changes with hospitalization and mortality rates in prevalent ESRD patients. Kidney Int. 2007;71(5):454461.
  • 29
    Inrig JK, Patel UD, Toto RD, et al. Association of blood pressure increases during hemodialysis with 2-year mortality in incident hemodialysis patients: a secondary analysis of the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Wave 2 Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(5):881890.
  • 30
    Manios E, Tsagalis G, Tsivgoulis G, et al. Time rate of blood pressure variation is associated with impaired renal function in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 2009 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print].