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J Clin Hypertens(Greenwich). 2010;12:653–660. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Urotensin II (UII) exerts multiple effects on the cardiovascular system, acts as a diabetogenic agent, and may also contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to determine circulating UII in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its relationship with MetS. A total of 360 consecutive patients with T2DM were included. MetS presence/absence (MetS [+]/[−]) was defined according to American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. Plasma concentrations of UII were determined by radioimmunoassay. UII levels were significantly higher in MetS (+) than in MetS (−) T2DM patients (0.97 pg/mL [0.93–1.01], n=294 vs 0.82 pg/mL [0.75–0.88] pg/mL, n=66, respectively; P<.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that UII was significantly associated with MetS (+) (odds ratio, 6.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.21–16.04]; P=.02). UII plasma concentrations are significantly higher in T2DM patients presenting with MetS. Therefore, circulating UII may participate in the worsening course of some T2DM patients and may provide novel therapeutic perspectives.