J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich).

Severe acute hypertension in pediatric patients requires prompt and controlled blood pressure (BP) reduction to prevent end-organ damage. The authors aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of isradipine, an orally administered second-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, for treatment of acute hypertension in hospitalized pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of 391 doses of isradipine administered to 282 patients (58% boys) with acute hypertension and median age of 12.8 years (range, 0.1–21.9) was performed. Primary diagnoses included renal disease (n=154), malignancy (45), nonrenal transplant (37), neurologic disease (21), and other (25). The decrease in systolic BP was 16.3%±11.6% (mean ± SD) and diastolic BP was 24.2%±17.2%. BPs were significantly lower in all age groups and in all diagnosis categories following isradipine administration. The decrease in BP was the highest in children younger than 2 years. The mean increase in pulse after a dose was 7±17 beats per minute. Forty adverse events were reported in 33 patients, with emesis and nausea being the most common; 5 of these events were hypotension. The authors conclude that isradipine effectively reduces BP in a wide variety of hospitalized children and adolescents with acute hypertension. A lower initial dose of 0.05 mg/kg may be appropriate in children younger than 2 years. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010;12:850–855.