Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension. The authors sought to determine prevalence rates of hypertension in adults tested for 25-hydroxyvitamin D categorized by their levels and evaluate odds ratios for hypertension at lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with optimal levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2006, of patients aged 18 years and older within a large ethnically diverse population. Diagnosis of hypertension was determined by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: ideal (≥40 ng/mL), adequate (30–39 ng/mL), deficient (15–29 ng/mL), and severely deficient (<15 ng/mL). Prevalence rates of hypertension and odds ratios were calculated for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency. A total of 2722 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 24%. Hypertension rates were 52%, 41%, 27%, and 20% in 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, 30 to 39 ng/mL, and ≥40 ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency were 2.7 (1.4–5.2), 2.0 (1.5–2.6), and 1.3 (1.2–1.6) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, and 30 to 39 ng/mL, respectively, compared with the ≥40 ng/mL group. This study demonstrates increased rates of hypertension in individuals who tested for lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D starting at levels <40 ng/mL. This retrospective analysis raises the question of whether supplementing to optimal vitamin D levels can prevent or improve hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13:170–177. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.