• 1
    Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2009;119:e21e181.
  • 2
    Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:525541.
  • 3
    Ferreira AV, Viana MC, Mill JG, et al. Racial differences in aortic stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults. J Hypertens. 1999;17:631637.
  • 4
    Din-Dzietham R, Couper D, Evans G, et al. Arterial stiffness is greater in African Americans than in whites: evidence from the Forsyth County, North Carolina, ARIC cohort. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:304313.
  • 5
    Stein CM, Lang CC, Singh I, et al. Increased vascular adrenergic vasoconstriction and decreased vasodilation in blacks. Additive mechanisms leading to enhanced vascular reactivity. Hypertension. 2000;36:945951.
  • 6
    Chaturvedi N, Bulpitt CJ, Leggetter S, et al. Ethnic differences in vascular stiffness and relations to hypertensive target organ damage. J Hypertens. 2004;22:17311737.
  • 7
    Strain WD, Chaturvedi N, Leggetter S, et al. Ethnic differences in skin microvascular function and their relation to cardiac target-organ damage. J Hypertens. 2005;23:133140.
  • 8
    Agabiti-Rosei E, Mancia G, O’Rourke MF, et al. Central blood pressure measurements and antihypertensive therapy: a consensus document. Hypertension. 2007;50:154160.
  • 9
    Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, et al. Central pressure more strongly relates to vascular disease and outcome than does brachial pressure: the Strong Heart Study. Hypertension. 2007;50:197203.
  • 10
    Schillaci G, Grassi G. Central blood pressure: getting to the heart of the matter. J Hypertens. 2010;28:237239.
  • 11
    Heffernan KS, Jae SY, Wilund KR, et al. Racial differences in central blood pressure and vascular function in young men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H2380H2387.
  • 12
    Ferdinand KC, Saunders E. Hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in African Americans – why we need to do better. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;1(Suppl 1):2130.
  • 13
    Khan JM, Beevers DG. Management of hypertension in ethnic minorities. Heart. 2005;91:11051109.
  • 14
    Wright JT Jr, Dunn JK, Cutler JA, et al. Outcomes in hypertensive black and nonblack patients treated with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril. JAMA. 2005;293:15951608.
  • 15
    Johnson E, Wright JJ. Management of hypertension in black populations. In: OparilS, WeberM, eds. Hypertension. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:587595.
  • 16
    Ferdinand KC, Ferdinand DP. Race-based therapy for hypertension: possible benefits and potential pitfalls. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008;6:13571366.
  • 17
    Havranek EP. From black and white to shades of gray: race and renin-angiotensin system blockade. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:18721873.
  • 18
    Andersen K, Weinberger MH, Egan B, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of aliskiren, an oral direct renin inhibitor, and ramipril in hypertension: a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. J Hypertens. 2008;26:589599.
  • 19
    Oh BH, Mitchell J, Herron JR, et al. Aliskiren, an oral renin inhibitor, provides dose-dependent efficacy and sustained 24-h blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:11571163.
  • 20
    Stanton A, Jensen C, Nussberger J, et al. Blood pressure lowering in essential hypertension with an oral renin inhibitor, aliskiren. Hypertension. 2003;42:11371143.
  • 21
    Azizi M, Menard J, Bissery A, et al. Pharmacologic demonstration of the synergistic effects of a combination of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the AT1 receptor antagonist valsartan on the angiotensin II-renin feedback interruption. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:31263133.
  • 22
    Drummond W, Munger MA, Rafique Essop M, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren as add-on therapy in patients not responding to amlodipine monotherapy. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:742750.
  • 23
    Villamil A, Chrysant SG, Calhoun D, et al. Renin inhibition with aliskiren provides additive antihypertensive efficacy when used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. J Hypertens. 2007;25:217226.
  • 24
    Uresin Y, Taylor AA, Kilo C, et al. Efficacy and safety of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and ramipril alone or in combination in patients with diabetes and hypertension. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2007;8:190198.
  • 25
    Oparil S, Yarows SA, Patel S, et al. Efficacy and safety of combined use of aliskiren and valsartan in patients with hypertension: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2007;370:221229.
  • 26
    Fisher ND, Hollenberg NK. Renin inhibition: what are the therapeutic opportunities? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:592599.
  • 27
    Weir MR, Bush C, Anderson DR, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the oral direct renin inhibitor aliskiren in patients with hypertension: a pooled analysis. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2007;1:264277.
  • 28
    Blumenstein M, Romaszko J, Calderon A, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of aliskiren/hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) single-pill combinations in patients who are non-responsive to HCT 25 mg alone. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:903910.
  • 29
    Mackenzie IS, McEniery CM, Dhakam Z, et al. Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive agents on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension. 2009;54:409413.
  • 30
    Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, et al. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension. 2005;45:142161.
  • 31
    Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, et al. Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation. 2006;113:12131225.
  • 32
    Protogerou AD, Stergiou GS, Vlachopoulos C, et al. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on central blood pressure beyond peripheral blood pressure Part II: Evidence for specific class-effects of antihypertensive drugs on pressure amplification. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15:272289.
  • 33
    Morgan T, Lauri J, Bertram D, et al. Effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on central aortic pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:118123.
  • 34
    Asmar RG, London GM, O’Rourke ME, et al. Improvement in blood pressure, arterial stiffness and wave reflections with a very-low-dose perindopril/indapamide combination in hypertensive patient: a comparison with atenolol. Hypertension. 2001;38:922926.