• 1
    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360:19031913.
  • 2
    Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:19251932.
  • 3
    Hozawa A, Folsom AR, Sharrett AR, et al. Absolute and attributable risks of cardiovascular disease incidence in relation to optimal and borderline risk factors: comparison of African American with white subjects – Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:573579.
  • 4
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28:412419.
  • 5
    Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285:24862497.
  • 6
    Egan BM, Zhao Y, Axon RN. US trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, 1988–2008. JAMA. 2010;303:20432050.
  • 7
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA. 2004;29:28472850.
  • 8
    Folsom AR, Burke GL, Byers CL, et al. Implications of obesity for cardiovascular disease in blacks: the CARDIA and ARIC studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1604S1611S.
  • 9
    Poirier P, Giles TD, Bray GA, et al; American Heart Association; Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation. 2006;113:898918.
  • 10
    Dengel DR, Hagberg JM, Pratley RE, et al. Improvements in blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipoprotein lipids after aerobic exercise plus weight loss in obese, hypertensive middle-aged men. Metab Clin Exp. 1998;47:10751082.
  • 11
    Racette SB, Weiss EP, Hickner RC, et al. Modest weight loss improves insulin action in obese African Americans. Metab Clin Exp. 2005;54:960965.
  • 12
    Batsis JA, Sarr MG, Collazo-Clavell ML, et al. Cardiovascular risk after bariatric surgery for obesity. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:930937.
  • 13
    Morales PA, Mitchell BD, Valdez RA, et al. Incidence of NIDDM and impaired glucose tolerance in hypertensive subjects. The San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes. 1993;42:154161.
  • 14
    Feskens EJ, Tuomilehto J, Stengard JH, et al. Hypertension and overweight associated with hyperinsulinaemia and glucose tolerance: a longitudinal study of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetologia. 1995;38:839847.
  • 15
    Brancati FL, Kao WH, Folsom AR, et al. Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. JAMA. 2000;283:22532259.
  • 16
    Falkner B, Sherif K, Sumner AE, et al. Blood pressure increase with impaired glucose tolerance in young adult American blacks. Hypertension. 1999;34:10861090.
  • 17
    Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, et al. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA. 2005;293:18611867.
  • 18
    Romero-Corral A, Montori VM, Somers VK, et al. Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet. 2006;368:666678.
  • 19
    Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, et al. Cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA. 2007;298:20282037.
  • 20
    Lewis CE, McTigue KM, Burke LE, et al. Mortality, health outcomes, and body mass index in the overweight range: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009;119:32633271.
  • 21
    Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:763778.
  • 22
    Hutchinson RG, Watson RL, Davis CE, et al. Racial differences in risk factors for atherosclerosis. The ARIC study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities. Angiology. 1997;48:279290.
  • 23
    Stein E, Kushner H, Gidding S, et al. Plasma lipid concentrations in nondiabetic African American adults: associations with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Metab Clin Exp. 2007;56:954960.
  • 24
    Natali A, Muscelli E, Casolaro A, et al. Metabolic characteristics of prehypertension: role of classification criteria and gender. J Hypertens. 2009;27:23942402.
  • 25
    Hall WD, Clark LT, Wenger NK, et al; for the African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council (AALCC). The metabolic syndrome in African Americans: a review. Ethn Dis. 2003;13:414428.
  • 26
    Sprafka JM, Norsted SW, Folsom AR, et al. Life-style factors do not explain racial differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the Minnesota Heart Survey. Epidemiology. 1992;3:156163.