• 1
    Foster MC, Hwang SJ, Larson MG, et al. Cross-classification of microalbuminuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate: associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and clinical outcomes. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:13861392.
  • 2
    Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA. 2007;298:20382047.
  • 3
    Danziger J. Importance of low-grade albuminuria. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83:806812.
  • 4
    Kraft SK, Lazaridis EN, Qiu C, et al. Screening and treatment of diabetic nephropathy by primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14:8897.
  • 5
    Frazee LA, Samandari S, Tanphaichitr N, et al. Screening for nephropathy and antiangiotensin use among diabetic patients in an academic community medical center. Am J Ther. 2006;13:1823.
  • 6
    Zandbergen AA, Vogt L, de Zeeuw D, et al. Change in albuminuria is predictive of cardiovascular outcome in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:31193121.
  • 7
    Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lancet. 2000;355:253259.
  • 8
    Mann JF, Gerstein HC, Yi QL, et al. Development of renal disease in people at high cardiovascular risk: results of the HOPE randomized study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:641647.
  • 9
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2009. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(suppl 1):S13S61.
  • 10
    Makino H, Haneda M, Babazono T, et al. Prevention of transition from incipient to overt nephropathy with telmisartan in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:15771578.
  • 11
    National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Part 5. Evaluation of laboratory measurements for clinical assessment of kidney disease. .
  • 12
    de Jong PE, Gansevoort RT, Bakker SJ. Macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria: do both predict renal and cardiovascular events with similar strength? J Nephrol. 2007;20:375380.
  • 13
    Levey AS, Cattran D, Friedman A, et al. Proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in CKD: report of a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:205226.
  • 14
    Grimm RH Jr, Svendsen KH, Kasiske B, et al. Proteinuria is a risk factor for mortality over 10 years of follow-up. MRFIT Research Group. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Kidney Int Suppl. 1997;63:S10S14.
  • 15
    Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q, et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA. 2001;286:421426.
  • 16
    Asselbergs FW, Hillege HL, Van Gilst WH. Framingham score and microalbuminuria: combined future targets for primary prevention? Kidney Int Suppl. 2004;(92):S111S114.
  • 17
    Ärnlöv J, Evans JC, Meigs JB, et al. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005;112:969975.
  • 18
    Sciarretta S, Valenti V, Tocci G, et al. Association of renal damage with cardiovascular diseases is independent of individual cardiovascular risk profile in hypertension: data from the Italy – developing education and awareness on microalbuminuria in patients with hypertensive disease study. J Hypertens. 2010;28:251258.
  • 19
    Cao JJ, Biggs ML, Barzilay J, et al. Cardiovascular and mortality risk prediction and stratification using urinary albumin excretion in older adults ages 68–102: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:806813.
  • 20
    Reiser J, Pollak MR. Inherited disorders of podocyte function. In: BrennerBM, ed. Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Inc; 2007.
  • 21
    Jefferson JA, Shankland SJ, Pichler RH. Proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease: a mechanistic viewpoint. Kidney Int. 2008;74:2236.
  • 22
    Deckert T, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage. The Steno hypothesis. Diabetologia. 1989;32:219226.
  • 23
    Freedman BI, Kopp JB, Winkler CA, et al. Polymorphisms in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (myh9) are associated with albuminuria in hypertensive African Americans: the HyperGEN Study. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:626632.
  • 24
    K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(2 suppl 1):S1S266.
  • 25
    Meigs JB, Nathan DM, D’Agostino RB Sr, et al. Fasting and postchallenge glycemia and cardiovascular disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:18451850.
  • 26
    Mahmud N, McDonald GS, Kelleher D, et al. Microalbuminuria correlates with intestinal histopathological grading in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1996;38:99103.
  • 27
    Figueiredo EL, Leão FV, Oliveira LV, et al. Microalbuminuria in nondiabetic and nonhypertensive systolic heart failure patients. Congest Heart Fail. 2008;14:234238.
  • 28
    Lillehoj EP, Poulik MD. Normal and abnormal aspects of proteinuria. Part I: mechanisms, characteristics and analyses of urinary protein. Part II: clinical considerations. Exp Pathol. 1986;29:128.
  • 29
    Poortmans JR, Ouchinsky M. Glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion after maximal exercise in aging sedentary and active men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:11811185.
  • 30
    Sølling J, Solling K, Mogensen CE. Patterns of proteinuria and circulating immune complexes in febrile patients. Acta Med Scand. 1982;212:167169.
  • 31
    Carter JL, Tomson CR, Stevens PE, et al. Does urinary tract infection cause proteinuria or microalbuminuria? A systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:30313037.
  • 32
    Parving HH, Gall MA, Skott P, et al. Prevalence and causes of albuminuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Kidney Int. 1992;41:758762.
  • 33
    Christensen PK, Larsen S, Horn T, et al. Causes of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy. Kidney Int. 2000;58:17191731.
  • 34
    Tsui JI, Vittinghoff E, Shlipak MG, et al. Relationship between hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:11681174.
  • 35
    Bakris GL. ACE inhibitors and ARBs: are they better than other agents to slow nephropathy progression? J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9:413415.
  • 36
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:12061252.
  • 37
    K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(5 Suppl 1):S1S290.
  • 38
    Bakris G, Burgess E, Weir M, et al. Telmisartan is more effective than losartan in reducing proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2008;74:364369.
  • 39
    Bomback AS, Kshirsagar AV, Amamoo MA, et al. Change in proteinuria after adding aldosterone blockers to ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in CKD: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51:199211.
  • 40
    Parving HH, Persson F, Lewis JB, et al. Aliskiren combined with losartan in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:24332446.
  • 41
    Persson F, Rossing P, Schjoedt KJ, et al. Time course of the antiproteinuric and antihypertensive effects of direct renin inhibition in type 2 diabetes. Kidney Int. 2008;73:14191425.
  • 42
    Hollenberg NK, Parving HH, Viberti G, et al. Albuminuria response to very high-dose valsartan in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Hypertens. 2007;25:19211926.
  • 43
    Yusuf S, Teo K, Anderson C, et al. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372:11741183.
  • 44
    Kunz R, Friedrich C, Wolbers M, et al. Meta-analysis: effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:3048.
  • 45
    Galle J, Schwedhelm E, Pinnetti S, et al. Antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin receptor blockers: telmisartan versus valsartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and overt nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:31743183.
  • 46
    Bakris GL, Weir MR. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated elevations in serum creatinine: is this a cause for concern? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:685693.
  • 47
    Thorp ML, Ditmer DG, Nash MK, et al. A study of the prevalence of significant increases in serum creatinine following angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor administration. J Hum Hypertens. 2005;19:389392.
  • 48
    Hou FF, Zhang X, Zhang GH, et al. Efficacy and safety of benazepril for advanced chronic renal insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:131140.
  • 49
    Hou FF, Xie D, Zhang X, et al. Renoprotection of Optimal Antiproteinuric Doses (ROAD) study: a randomized controlled study of benazepril and losartan in chronic renal insufficiency. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:18891898.
  • 50
    Palmer BF. Managing hyperkalemia caused by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:585592.
  • 51
    Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:15471559.
  • 52
    Mann JF, Schmieder RE, McQueen M, et al. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372:547553.
  • 53
    Sarafidis PA, Bakris GL. Renin-angiotensin blockade and kidney disease. Lancet. 2008;372:511512.
  • 54
    Bakris GL, Weir MR, DeQuattro V, et al. Effects of an ACE inhibitor/calcium antagonist combination on proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 1998;54:12831289.
  • 55
    Toto RD, Tian M, Fakouhi K, et al. Effects of calcium channel blockers on proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10:761769.
  • 56
    Molyneaux LM, Willey KA, Yue DK. Indapamide is as effective as captopril in the control of microalbuminuria in diabetes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1996;27:424427.
  • 57
    Marre M, Puig JG, Kokot F, et al. Equivalence of indapamide SR and enalapril on microalbuminuria reduction in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes: the NESTOR Study. J Hypertens. 2004;22:16131622.