• 1
    Yeni-Komshian H, Carantoni M, Abbasi F, et al. Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy, nondiabetic volunteers. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:71175.
  • 2
    Bogardus C, Lillioja S, Mott DM, et al. Relationship between degree of obesity and in vivo insulin action in man. Am J Physiol. 1985;248(Endocrinol Metab 11):E286E291.
  • 3
    Lillioja S, Mott DM, Zawadzki J, et al. In vivo insulin action is a familial characteristic in nondiabetic Pima Indians. Diabetes. 1987;36:13291335.
  • 4
    Zoratti R, Godsland IF, Chaturvedi N, et al. Relation of plasma lipids to insulin resistance, nonesterified fatty acids, and body fat in men from three ethnic groups: relevance to variations in risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease. Metabolism. 2000;49:245252.
  • 5
    Reaven G. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37:15951607.
  • 6
    Warram JH, Martin BC, Krolewski AS, et al. Slow glucose removal rate and hyperinsulinemia precede the development of type II diabetes in the offspring of the diabetic parents. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:909912.
  • 7
    Lillioja S, Mott DM, Spraul M, et al. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:19881992.
  • 8
    Zavaroni I, Bonora E, Pagliara M, et al. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:702706.
  • 9
    Himsworth HP. The mechanism of diabetes mellitus. I. Lancet. 1939;2:16.
  • 10
    Himsworth HP. The mechanism of diabetes mellitus. II. The control of the blood sugar level. Lancet. 1939;2:6568.
  • 11
    Himsworth HP. The mechanism of diabetes mellitus. III. Human diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1939;2:171175.
  • 12
    Ginsberg H, Olefsky JM, Reaven GM. Further evidence that insulin resistance exists in patients with chemical diabetes. Diabetes. 1974;23:674678.
  • 13
    Ginsberg H, Kimmerling G, Olefsky JM, et al. Demonstration of insulin resistance in untreated adult onset diabetic subjects with fasting hyperglycemia. J Clin Invest. 1975;55:454461.
  • 14
    Laws A, Stefanick ML, Reaven GM. Insulin resistance in non-diabetic relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;69:343347.
  • 15
    Welborn TA, Breckenridge A, Rubinstein AH, et al. Serum-insulin in essential hypertension and in peripheral vascular disease. Lancet. 1966;1:11361137.
  • 16
    Lucas CP, Estigarribia JA. Darga LL, Reaven GM. Insulin and blood pressure in obesity. Hypertension. 1985;7:702706.
  • 17
    Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C. Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of primary hypertension independent of obesity. Metabolism. 1990;39:167174.
  • 18
    Raitakari OT, Porkka KVK, Rönnemaa T, et al. The role of insulin in clustering of serum lipids and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Diabetologia. 1995;38:10421050.
  • 19
    Allemann Y, Horber FF, Colombo M, et al. Insulin sensitivity and body fat distribution in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. Lancet. 1993;341:327331.
  • 20
    Facchini FS, Hua N, Abbas F, et al. Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:35743578.
  • 21
    Lima NKC, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, et al. Prevalence of insulin resistance and related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:106111.
  • 22
    Reaven GM, Hollenbeck CB, Chen Y-DI. Relationship between glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action in non-obese individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. Diabetologia. 1989;32:5255.
  • 23
    Reaven GM, Chen Y-DI, Hollenbeck CB, et al. Plasma insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin concentrations in obese and nonobese individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:4448.
  • 24
    Facchini FS, DoNascimento C, Reaven GM, et al. Blood pressure, nsulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion. Hypertension. 1999;33:10081012.
  • 25
    Stuhlinger MC, Abbasi F, Chu JW, et al. Relationship between insulin resistance and an endogenous nitiric oxide synthase inhibitor. JAMA. 2002;287:14201426.
  • 26
    Abbasi F, McLaughlin T, Lamendola C, et al. The relationship between glucose disposal in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia and basal glucose and free fatty acid concentrations in healthy volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:12511254.
  • 27
    Reaven GM, Lithell H, Landsberg L. Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities – the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:374381.
  • 28
    Reaven GM. The kidney: an unwilling accomplice in syndrome X. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;30:928931.
  • 29
    Turnbull FM, Abraira C, Anderson RJ, et al. Intensive glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:22882298.
  • 30
    Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving H-H, et al. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:580591.
  • 31
    Reaven GM. Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:23992403.
  • 32
    Zavaroni I, Mazza S, Dall’Aglio E, et al. Prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia in patients with high blood pressure. J Intern Med. 1992;231:235240.
  • 33
    Sheuh WH-H, Jeng C-Y, Shieh S-M, et al. Insulin resistance and abnormal electrocardiograms in patients with high blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 1992;5:444448.
  • 34
    Gaziano JM, Sesso HD, Breslow JL, et al. Relations between systemic hypertension and blood lipids on risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1999;84:768773.
  • 35
    Jeppesen J, Hein HO, Suadicani P, et al. Low triglycerides-high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:361366.