• 1
    O’Rourke MF. Principles and Definitions of Arterial Stiffness, Wave Reflections and Pulse Pressure Amplifications. In: Safar ME, O’Rourke MF, eds. Arterial Stiffness in Hypertension (Handbook of Hypertension). New York, NY: Elsevier; 2006:23:319.
  • 2
    McEniery CM, Yasmin, McDonnell B, et al. Central pressure: variability and impact of cardiovascular risk factors: the Anglo-Cardiff Collaborative Trial II. Hypertension. 2008;51:14761482.
  • 3
    O’Rourke MF, Adji A. Basis for use of central blood pressure measurement in office clinical practice. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2008;2:2838.
  • 4
    Sir Willliam Osler “The Great Physician,” was also a man of letters. The Life of Sir William Osler (2 Vols.) by Harvey Cushing.
  • 5
    Izzo JL Jr. Arterial stiffness and the systolic hypertension syndrome. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2004;19:341352.
  • 6
    Nichols WW, O’Rourke MF. McDonald’s Blood Flow in Arteries, 5th ed. London, UK: Arnold; 2005.
  • 7
    Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kizer JR, et al. High central pulse pressure is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome: the Strong Heart study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:17301734.
  • 8
    The CAFE Investigators, for the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) Investigators, CAFE Steering Committee and Writing Committee; Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, Cruickshank K, Stanton A, Collier D, Alun D, Thurston HH, O’Rourke M. Differential impact of blood pressure–lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) Study. Circulation. 2006;113:12131225.
  • 9
    Wang F, Ye P, Luo L, et al. Association of serum lipids with arterial stiffness in a population-based study in Beijing. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Feb 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02481.x. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 10
    Giral P, Atger V, Amar J, et al. A relationship between aortic stiffness and serum HDL3 cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic, symptom-free men. The PCVMETRA Group (Groupe de Prévention Cardiovasculaire en Médecine du Travail). Eur J Cardiovas Prev Rehabil. 1994;1:5358.
  • 11
    Barinas-Mitchell E, Kuller LH, Sutton-Tyrrell K, et al. Effect of weight loss and nutritional intervention on arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:22182222.
  • 12
    Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Campbell LV, et al. Physical activity reduces genetic susceptibility to increased central systolic pressure augmentation: a study of female twins. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:264270.
  • 13
    Westerbacka J, Wilkinson I, Cockcroft J, et al. Diminished wave reflection in the aorta: a novel physiological action of insulin on large blood vessels. Hypertension. 1999;33:11181122.
  • 14
    Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, Bergholm R, et al. Marked resistance of the ability of insulin to decrease arterial stiffness characterizes human obesity. Diabetes. 1999;48:821827.
  • 15
    Tamminen M, Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, et al. Insulin-induced decreases in aortic wave reflection and central systolic pressure are impaired in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:23142319.
  • 16
    Westerbacka J, Seppala-Lindroos A, Yki-Ja¨rvinen H. Resistance to acute insulin-induced decreases in large artery stiffness accompanies the insulin resistance syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:52625268.
  • 17
    Zieman SJ, Melenovsky V, Kass DA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:932.
  • 18
    Cavalcante JL, Lima JAC, Redheuil A, et al. Aortic stiffness current understanding and future directions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:15111522.