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- How the Aldosterone Paradigm Has Changed Markedly: A Platform for Formulating Rational Therapeutics
- High Salt (“Inappropriate Salt”) State Enhances Cardiovascular and Renal Injury and the Vascular Inflammatory Effects of MR Activation
- Blood Pressure-Independent Effects of Aldosterone and MR Activation to Produce Target Organ Damage
- Other Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011;13:644–648. ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Key Points and Practical Recommendations
- •Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists (aldosterone blockers) provide effective antihypertensive treatment, especially in low-renin and salt-sensitive forms of hypertension, including resistant hypertension.
- •Newer, more selective MR antagonists (eg, eplerenone) have fewer of the progestational and antiandrogenic effects than spironolactone, enhancing tolerability and potentially improving adherence to therapy.
- •MR antagonists provide an additional benefit in the treatment of heart failure when combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, and loop diuretics.
- •Other potassium-sparing diuretics (amiloride or triamterene) are generally prescribed for essential hypertension as a fixed-dose combination with hydrochlorothiazide.
- •The dose range for spironolactone with resistant hypertension is between 25 mg/d and 50 mg/d, and eplerenone is an appropriate alternative if spironolactone is not tolerated because of sexual side effects.
- •In general, the combined use of spironolactone and adequate doses of a thiazide diuretic or a thiazide-like agent such as chlorthalidone for the treatment of resistant hypertension maximizes efficacy and reduces the risk of spironolactone-induced hyperkalemia.